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Autoimmunity Correlates With Tumor Regression In Patients With Metastatic Melanoma Treated With Anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte Antigen-4.

P. Attia, G. Phan, A. Maker, M. Robinson, M. Quezado, J. Yang, R. Sherry, S. Topalian, U. Kammula, R. Royal, N. Restifo, Leah R. Haworth, C. Levy, S. Mavroukakis, G. Nichol, M. Yellin, S. Rosenberg
Published 2005 · Medicine

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PURPOSE Previously, we reported our experience treating 14 patients with metastatic melanoma using a fully human antibody to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (anti-CTLA-4) in conjunction with peptide vaccination. We have now treated 56 patients to evaluate two different dose schedules of anti-CTLA-4 and to explore the relationship between autoimmunity and tumor regression. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 56 patients with progressive stage IV melanoma were enrolled onto the study. All had Karnofsky performance status > or = 60% with no prior history of autoimmunity. Twenty-nine patients received 3 mg/kg anti-CTLA-4 every 3 weeks, whereas 27 received 3 mg/kg as their initial dose with subsequent doses reduced to 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks. In both cohorts patients received concomitant vaccination with two modified HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides from the gp100 melanoma-associated antigen, gp100:209-217(210M) and gp100:280-288(288V). RESULTS Two patients achieved a complete response (ongoing at 30 and 31 months, respectively) and five patients achieved a partial response (durations of 4, 6, 25+, 26+, and 34+ months, respectively), for an overall objective response rate of 13%. Tumor regression was seen in lung, liver, brain, lymph nodes, and subcutaneous sites. Of 14 patients with grade 3/4 autoimmune toxicity, five (36%) experienced a clinical response compared with only two responses in the 42 patients (5%) with no autoimmune toxicity (P = .008). There were no significant differences in response rate or toxicity between the two dose schedules. CONCLUSION Administration of anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody plus peptide vaccination can cause durable objective responses, which correlate with the induction of autoimmunity, in patients with metastatic melanoma.
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