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Sensory Evaluation Techniques

M. Meilgaard, G. Civille, B. Carr
Published 1987 · Computer Science

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Preface INTRODUCTION TO SENSORY TECHNIQUES Introduction Development of Sensory Testing Human Subjects as Instruments Conducting a Sensory Study SENSORY ATTRIBUTES AND THE WAY WE PERCEIVE THEM Introduction Sensory Attributes The Human Senses Perception at Threshold and Above CONTROLS FOR TEST ROOM Introduction Environmental Controls Product Controls Panelist Controls FACTORS INFLUENCING SENSORY VERDICTS Introduction Physiological Factors Psychological Factors Poor Physical Condition MEASURING RESPONSES Introduction Psychophysical Theory Classification Grading Ranking Scaling OVERALL DIFFERENCE TESTS: DOES A SENSORY DIFFERENCE EXIST BETWEEN SAMPLES? Introduction The Unified Approach to Difference and Similarity Testing Triangle Test Duo-Trio Test Two-Out-of-Five Test Same/Different Test (or Simple Difference Test) "A" - "Not A" Test Difference-from-Control Test Sequential Tests ATTRIBUTE DIFFERENCE TESTS: HOW DOES ATTRIBUTE X DIFFER BETWEEN SAMPLES? Introduction: Paired Comparison Designs Directional Difference Test: Comparing Two Samples Pairwise Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis-Comparing Several Samples in All Possible Pairs Introduction: Multisample Difference Tests-Block Designs Simple Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis-Randomized (Complete) Block Design Multisample Difference Test: Rating Approach-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Multisample Difference Test: BIB Ranking Test (Balanced Incomplete Block Design)-Friedman Analysis Multisample Difference Test: BIB Rating Test (Balanced Incomplete Block Design)-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance DETERMINING THRESHOLD Introduction Definitions Applications of Threshold Determinations SELECTION AND TRAINING OF PANEL MEMBERS Introduction Panel Development Selection and Training for Difference Tests Selection and Training of Panelists for Descriptive Testing Panel Performance and Motivation Appendix 1: Prescreening Questionnaires Appendix 2: Panel Leadership Advice DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES Definition Field of Application Components of Descriptive Analysis Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods Application of Descriptive Analysis Panel Data THE SPECTRUM (TM) DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS METHOD Designing a Descriptive Procedure Myths about the Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method Terminology Intensity Other Options Modified Short-Version Spectrum Descriptive Procedures for Quality Assurance, Shelf-Life Studies, etc. Appendix 1: Spectrum Terminology for Descriptive Analysis Appendix 2: Spectrum Intensity Scales for Descriptive Analysis Appendix 3: A Streamlined Approach to Spectrum References Appendix 4: Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Product Lexicons Appendix 5: Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Examples of Full Product Descriptions Appendix 6: Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Training Exercises AFFECTIVE TESTS: CONSUMER TESTS AND IN-HOUSE PANEL ACCEPTANCE TESTS Purpose and Applications The Subjects/Consumers in Affective Tests Choice of Test Location Affective Test Methods-Fuzzy Front End Affective Methods: Qualitative Affective Methods: Quantitative Internet Research Using Other Sensory Methods to Uncover Insights Appendix 1: Screeners for Consumer Studies-Focus Group, CLT, and HUT Appendix 2: Discussion Guide-Group or One-on-One Interviews Appendix 3: Questionnaires for Consumer Studies Appendix 4: Protocol Design for Consumer Studies Appendix 5: Additional Fuzzy Front End References BASIC STATISTICAL METHODS Introduction Summarizing Sensory Data Statistical Hypothesis Testing Thurstonian Scaling The Statistical Design of Sensory Panel Studies Appendix on Probability ADVANCED STATISTICAL METHODS Introduction Data Relationships Preference Mapping The Treatment Structure of an Experimental Design GUIDELINES FOR CHOICE OF TECHNIQUE Introduction GUIDELINES FOR REPORTING RESULTS Introduction Summary Objective Experimental Results and Discussion STATISTICAL TABLES Index References appear at the end of each chapter.



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