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Comparison Between Self-concept And Self-efficacy In Academic Motivation Research

M. Bong, R. Clark
Published 1999 · Psychology

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This exploratory review compares academic self-concept and self-efficacy research. From the conceptual perspective, self-concept emerges as a more complex construct incorporating both cognitive and affective responses toward the self and is heavily influenced by social comparison. Self-efficacy, in contrast, concerns primarily cognitive judgments of one's capabilities based on mastery criteria. Despite these differences, the 2 constructs demonstrate similar internal structures that are multifaceted and hierarchical. From the methodological perspective, self-efficacy research demonstrates more consistent operational definitions, more context-specific assessment of both the construct and outcomes, and more frequent implementation of experimental, as opposed to correlational, designs. In the past, self-concept research has used more general indexes of both self-concept and achievement and depends mostly on correlational rather than on experimental data. These differences, although not necessarily inherent in...
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