Review: Diabetes, Obesity And Cancer - Pathophysiology And Clinical Implications.
Iliana C Lega, Lorraine L. Lipscombe
Published 2019 · Biology, Medicine
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Obesity and diabetes have both been associated with an increased risk of cancer. In the face of increasing obesity and diabetes rates worldwide, this is a worrying trend for cancer rates. Factors such as hyperinsulinemia, chronic inflammation, anti-hyperglycemic medications and shared risk factors have all been identified as potential mechanisms underlying the relationship. The most common obesity- and diabetes-related cancers are endometrial, colorectal and post menopausal breast cancers. In this review, we summarize the existing evidence that describes the complex relationship between obesity, diabetes and cancer focusing on epidemiologic and pathophysiologic evidence, also reviewing the role of anti-hyperglycemic agents, novel research approaches such as Mendelian Randomization as well as methodologic limitations of existing research. In addition, we also describe the bi-directional relationship between diabetes and cancer with a review of the evidence summarizing the risk of diabetes following cancer treatment. We conclude this review by providing clinical implications that are relevant for caring for patients with obesity, diabetes and cancer and provide recommendations for improving both clinical care and research for patients with these conditions.
This paper references
Impact of a Cancer Diagnosis on Acute Diabetic Complications
Erin Worndl (2016)
Mechanisms, Pathophysiology, and Management of Obesity
Steven B. Heymsfield (2017)
The Impact of Diabetes on Breast Cancer Treatments and Outcomes: A Population-Based Study
Iliana C Lega (2018)
Plasma Leptin Levels and Risk of Breast Cancer in Premenopausal Women
Holly R. Harris (2011)
Type-II diabetes and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of 36 studies
R Huxley (2005)
Bariatric Surgery is Associated With Reduced Risk of Breast Cancer in Both Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.
Heather Spencer Feigelson (2019)
Adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Shan-shan Li (2009)
Impact of diabetes mellitus on complications and outcomes of adjuvant chemotherapy in older patients with breast cancer.
Tomasz P. Srokowski (2009)
Overweight, obesity, and cancer risk.
France Bianchini (2002)
Epidemiology of Obesity and Diabetes and Their Cardiovascular Complications.
Shilpa N Bhupathiraju (2016)
Obesity and colorectal cancer.
Krasimira Aleksandrova (2013)
The Association of Basal Insulin Glargine and/or n-3 Fatty Acids With Incident Cancers in Patients With Dysglycemia
Louise J. Bordeleau (2014)
Association between Weight Loss and the Risk of Cancer after Bariatric Surgery
Daniel P. Schauer (2017)
Association between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of the literature.
Shichong Liao (2011)
Long-term all-cause mortality in cancer patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Bethany B. Barone (2008)
SGLT2 inhibitors and risk of cancer in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Huilin Tang (2017)
Abdominal obesity and prostate cancer risk: epidemiological evidence from the EPICAP study
Céline Lavalette (2018)
Intentional Weight Loss and Endometrial Cancer Risk.
Juhua Luo (2017)
Insulin dysregulation plays a critical role in colon inflammation: a bioinformatics approach
Nosratollah Naderi (2018)
Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors and pancreatic cancer: a cohort study.
Mugdha Gokhale (2014)
Hyperglycemia enhances the invasive and migratory activity of pancreatic cancer cells via hydrogen peroxide.
Wei Li (2011)
Adolescence and breast carcinoma risk.
Catherine S Berkey (1999)
A cross-sectional analysis of the associations between adult height, BMI and serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 -2 and -3 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
Francesca L. Crowe (2011)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies
Mukete Franklin Sona (2018)
Type 2 diabetes, adiposity and cancer morbidity and mortality risk taking into account competing risk of noncancer deaths in a prospective cohort setting
Isabel Drake (2017)
The increasing burden of cancer attributable to high body mass index in Brazil.
Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende (2018)
Radiation dose to the pancreas and risk of diabetes mellitus in childhood cancer survivors: a retrospective cohort study.
Florent de Vathaire (2012)
Colorectal Cancer Incidence Patterns in the United States, 1974–2013
Rebecca L Siegel (2017)
The effect of ionizing radiation on the primate pancreas: an endocrine and morphologic study.
Don F. du Toit (1987)
Vital Signs: Trends in Incidence of Cancers Associated with Overweight and Obesity — United States, 2005–2014
C. Brooke Steele (2017)
Is obesity an inflammatory disease?
Eduardo José Brommelstroet Ramos (2003)
Increased Risk of Colon Cancer in Men in the Pre-Diabetes Phase
Adedayo A. Onitilo (2013)
Association between hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of cancer death in nonobese and obese people: A population‐based observational study
Tetsuro Tsujimoto (2017)
Impact of detection bias on the risk of gastrointestinal cancer and its subsites in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Roy G P J de Jong (2017)
Diabetes and cancer.
Paolo Vigneri (2009)
Cancer Risk Among People With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Disentangling True Associations, Detection Bias, and Reverse Causation
Jessica L Harding (2014)
Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of colorectal neoplasia: An updated meta-analysis.
Su Luo (2016)
Changes in body mass index and prevalence of overweight in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: role of cranial irradiation.
Charles A. Sklar (2000)
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), and breast cancer risk: pooled individual data analysis of 17 prospective studies
Timothy J Key (2010)
Time-varying incidence of cancer after the onset of type 2 diabetes: evidence of potential detection bias
Jeffrey A. Johnson (2011)
Hyper-insulinaemia and cancer, meta-analyses of epidemiological studies
Paola Pisani (2008)
Trajectories of cardiometabolic risk factors before diagnosis of three subtypes of type 2 diabetes: a post-hoc analysis of the longitudinal Whitehall II cohort study.
Kristine Færch (2013)
Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
Leandra Ziad A Zargar Abdul Niveen M Benjamin Cecilia Robe Abarca-Gómez Abdeen Hamid Abu-Rmeileh Acosta-Cazar (2017)
Diabetes and endometrial cancer: effect modification by body weight, physical activity and hypertension
Ersilia Lucenteforte (2007)
Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, and prostate cancer risk: results from the North-American case-control study Prostate Cancer & Environment Study.
Katharina Boehm (2015)
High Glucose Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Cell Proliferation via the Induction of EGF Expression and Transactivation of EGFR
Liang Han (2011)
History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Incident Invasive Breast Cancer among Parous Women in the Nurses' Health Study II Prospective Cohort
Camille E Powe (2016)
Assessing Bladder Cancer Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Clinical Trials: the Dapagliflozin Drug Development Program as a ‘Case Study’
Agata Ptaszynska (2015)
Are Sulfonylurea and Insulin Therapies Associated With a Larger Risk of Cancer Than Metformin Therapy? A Retrospective Database Analysis
Bernd Kowall (2014)
Diabetes mellitus and increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma: a meta-analysis
Wei Jing (2012)
Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to diabetes and high body-mass index: a comparative risk assessment
Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard (2018)
Hyperglycemia regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein stability and function.
Sergiu-Bogdan Catrina (2004)
Cancer incidence in persons with type 1 diabetes: a five-country study of 9,000 cancers in type 1 diabetic individuals
Bendix Carstensen (2016)
The Use of Glyburide Compared With Other Sulfonylureas and the Risk of Cancer in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
Marco Tuccori (2015)
Pioglitazone use and risk of bladder cancer: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Juha Mehtälä (2018)
Childhood cancer survivors and adherence to the American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity
Chloe A Berdan (2014)
The proliferating role of insulin and insulin-like growth factors in cancer
Emily J Gallagher (2010)
Risk of diabetes after para-aortic radiation for testicular cancer
Harmke J Groot (2018)
Obesity and cancer risk: Emerging biological mechanisms and perspectives.
Konstantinos Ioannis Avgerinos (2019)
The influence of glucose-lowering therapies on cancer risk in type 2 diabetes
Craig J Currie (2009)
Type 2 diabetes and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies
Dipika Bansal (2013)
Chronic health conditions in adult survivors of childhood cancer.
Kevin Charles Oeffinger (2006)
Implementation intentions and colorectal screening: a randomized trial in safety-net clinics.
Katherine A. Greiner (2014)
Survivors of childhood leukaemia treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and total body irradiation should undergo screening for diabetes by oral glucose tolerance tests.
C. Wei (2016)
Risk of malignancies in patients with diabetes treated with human insulin or insulin analogues: a cohort study
Lars G. Hemkens (2009)
The temporal relationship between diabetes and cancer: A population-based study.
Iliana C Lega (2016)
Association Between Metformin and Sulfonylurea Monotherapies and Cancer Incidence: A Real-World Cohort Study in Shanghai, China
Jing-Hong Ye (2019)
High Glucose Concentrations Negatively Regulate the IGF1R/Src/ERK Axis through the MicroRNA-9 in Colorectal Cancer
Ya-Chun Chen (2019)
Insulin glargine use and short-term incidence of malignancies—a population-based follow-up study in Sweden
J. M. Jonasson (2009)
Use of insulin glargine and cancer incidence in Scotland: a study from the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group
Helen M. Colhoun (2009)
Gestational diabetes mellitus may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer
Yong Moon Park (2017)
Cancer and Tuberculosis with Some Comments on Cancer and Other Diseases
Edwin Bidwell Wilson (1932)
Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Men With Type 2 Diabetes Published ahead of print at http://care.diabetesjournals.org on 14 February 2008. DOI: 10.2337/dc07-1962. Additional information for this article can be found in an online appendix at http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1962. The costs of
Michiaki Fukui (2008)
The IRS-signalling system: A network of docking proteins that mediate insulin action
Morris F. White (2004)
Diabetogenic glucose and insulin concentrations modulate transcriptom and protein levels involved in tumour cell migration, adhesion and proliferation
Kai Masur (2011)
Clinical Practice GuidelinesMethods
Gillian L Booth (2013)
Burden of cancer attributable to obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated risk factors.
Alejandro López-Suárez (2019)
Metformin is an AMP kinase-dependent growth inhibitor for breast cancer cells.
Mahvash Zakikhani (2006)
Early adult body weight, body mass index, and premenopausal bilateral breast cancer: data from a case-control study
Giske Ursin (2004)
Diabetes and cancer: two diseases with obesity as a common risk factor
Satish K. Garg (2014)
Epidemiology: Obesity and cancer—the evidence is fattening up
Rudolf Kaaks (2014)
Proportion of Cancer Cases Attributable to Excess Body Weight by US State, 2011-2015
Farhad Islami (2018)
Adenoma surveillance and colorectal cancer incidence: a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study
Wendy S. Atkin (2017)
Metformin inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent translation initiation in breast cancer cells.
Ryan J. O. Dowling (2007)
The Role of Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolic Factors in Pancreatic Cancer: A Mendelian Randomization Study
Robert Carreras-Torres (2017)
Molecular mechanisms of cancer development in obesity
Melin J. Khandekar (2011)
Effect of metformin on the risk of prostate cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes by considering different confounding factors: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
Yongbo Wang (2019)
Reading Mendelian randomisation studies: a guide, glossary, and checklist for clinicians
Neil Martin Davies (2018)
Incidence of Diabetes in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.
Siddharth Singh (2016)
Type 2 diabetes and cancer: umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies
Konstantinos K Tsilidis (2015)
Pancreatic safety of incretin-based drugs--FDA and EMA assessment.
Amy Egan (2014)
Survivorship in Adolescents and Young Adults
Ashwin Kishtagari (2014)
Emerging cancer trends among young adults in the USA: analysis of a population-based cancer registry.
Hyuna Sung (2019)
Circulating adipokines and risk of obesity related cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Yeong Sook Yoon (2019)
Weight and weight changes in early adulthood and later breast cancer risk
Bernard A Rosner (2017)
Insulin induction instigates cell proliferation and metastasis in human colorectal cancer cells.
Chi-Cheng Lu (2017)
Carcinogenicity in rats of the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin.
Sandra De Jonghe (2014)
Bariatric Surgery and the Risk of Cancer in a Large Multisite Cohort
Daniel P. Schauer (2019)
Tallness and overweight during childhood have opposing effects on breast cancer risk
Leena Hilakivi-Clarke (2001)
Diabetes, Obesity, and Breast Cancer.
Chifei Kang (2018)
Fasting blood glucose and risk of prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of dose-response.
Ahmad Jayedi (2018)
Is risk of diabetes mellitus increased after abdominal radiotherapy?
Michael M. Hawkins (1996)
Midlife weight gain is a risk factor for obesity-related cancer
Susan Chadid (2018)
Hyperglycemia regulates the glucose-transport system of clonal choriocarcinoma cells in vitro. A potential molecular mechanism contributing to the adjunct effect of glucose in tumor therapy.
Tom Hahn (1998)
Endocrine Late Effects in Survivors of Cancer in Adolescence and Young Adulthood
Mette Vestergaard Jensen (2018)
Long-term changes and variability in diabetes risk factors prior to the development of impaired glucose homeostasis.
Eleni Laspa (2007)
Prevalence and Trends of Receipt of Cancer Screenings Among US Women with Diagnosed Diabetes
Guixiang Zhao (2008)
The natural course of beta-cell function in nondiabetic and diabetic individuals: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.
Andreas Festa (2006)
Pancreatic Cancer Following Incident Diabetes in African Americans and Latinos: The Multiethnic Cohort
Veronica Wendy Setiawan (2019)
IGF and Insulin Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer
Antonino Belfiore (2008)
Association of Body Mass Index and Age With Subsequent Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women
Minouk J. Schoemaker (2018)
Diabetes Risk in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study.
Iliana C Lega (2018)
Increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in young adults in Europe over the last 25 years
Fanny E R Vuik (2019)
Role of the insulin-like growth factor family in cancer development and progression.
Herbert Yu (2000)
Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, protects cholangiocytes from apoptosis
Marco Marzioni (2008)
Insulin receptor is an independent predictor of a favorable outcome in early stage breast cancer
Anna Marie Mulligan (2006)
Influence of insulin administration on growth of the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinoma in intact, oophorectomized, and hypophysectomized rats.
J. C. Heuson (1972)
Obesity and Cancer Mechanisms: Cancer Metabolism.
Benjamin D. Hopkins (2016)
Understanding the Warburg Effect: The Metabolic Requirements of Cell Proliferation
Matthew G. Vander Heiden (2009)
The effect of GWAS identified BMI loci on changes in body weight among middle-aged Danes during a five-year period.
C. H. Sandholt (2014)
Medication-induced diabetes during induction treatment for ALL, an early marker for future metabolic risk?
Yonatan Yeshayahu (2015)
Long term cause specific mortality among 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: population based cohort study
Miranda M Fidler (2016)
Weight change in middle adulthood and breast cancer risk in the EPIC-PANACEA study.
Marleen J. Emaus (2014)
Adult weight gain accelerates the onset of breast cancer
Maria Azrad (2019)
Obesity surgery and risk of colorectal and other obesity-related cancers: An English population-based cohort study
Ariadni Aravani (2018)
The Effect of Metformin on Mortality Following Cancer among Patients with Diabetes
Iliana C Lega (2014)
Mendelian randomization: genetic anchors for causal inference in epidemiological studies
George Davey Smith (2014)
Short-term risk of cancer among women with previous gestational diabetes: a population-based study.
S A D Bejaimal (2016)
Detection bias may be the main cause of increased cancer incidence among diabetics: results from the Rotterdam Study.
Kirstin M J De Bruijn (2014)
Risk of Bladder Cancer in Diabetic Patients Treated with Rosiglitazone or Pioglitazone: A Nested Case–Control Study
Fei-Yuan Hsiao (2013)
Cancer occurrence in Danish diabetic patients: duration and insulin effects
Bendix Carstensen (2011)
The influence of obesity-related factors in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma—A mendelian randomization study
Mattias Johansson (2019)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Leanne Bellamy (2009)
Pre-existing diabetes and breast cancer prognosis among elderly women
Jiamin Luo (2015)
Long-acting insulin analogs and cancer.
Laura Sciacca (2018)
Metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus in childhood cancer survivors.
Carla Bizzarri (2014)
Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease
Noriyuki Ouchi (2011)
Association Between Metformin Therapy and Mortality After Breast Cancer
Iliana C Lega (2013)
Diabetes and Other Comorbidities in Breast Cancer Survival by Race/Ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC)
Anna H Wu (2014)
The problem of "protopathic bias" in case-control studies.
Ralph I Horwitz (1980)
Recommendations for ototoxicity surveillance for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors: a report from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group in collaboration with the PanCare Consortium
Int Guideline Harmonization Grp (2019)
A Meta-analysis of Diabetes Mellitus and the Risk of Prostate Cancer
Jocelyn S Kasper (2006)
Incident cancer burden attributable to excess body mass index in 30 European countries.
Andrew G. Renehan (2010)
Diabetes and cancer (1): evaluating the temporal relationship between type 2 diabetes and cancer incidence
Jonathan Andrew Johnson (2012)
GLP-1R agonists promote normal and neoplastic intestinal growth through mechanisms requiring Fgf7.
Jacqueline Anne Koehler (2015)
Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada. Methods.
Gillian Booth (2013)
Incidence of diabetes among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors
Lorraine L. Lipscombe (2012)
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for Type 2 Diabetes:A Clinical Update of Safety and Efficacy
Scott R. Drab (2016)
Insulin-mediated acceleration of breast cancer development and progression in a nonobese model of type 2 diabetes.
Ruslan Novosyadlyy (2010)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 and its receptor agonist exendin-4 modulate cholangiocyte adaptive response to cholestasis.
Marco Marzioni (2007)
Leptin--much more than a satiety signal.
Ruth Babette Harris (2000)
Intentional weight loss and incidence of obesity-related cancers: the Iowa Women's Health Study
Emily D Parker (2003)
Incretin based drugs and risk of cholangiocarcinoma among patients with type 2 diabetes: population based cohort study
Devin Abrahami (2018)
Obesity, insulin resistance, adipocytokines and breast cancer: New biomarkers and attractive therapeutic targets.
Maria Dalamaga (2013)
Young Adult Cancer: Influence of the Obesity Pandemic
Nathan A. Berger (2018)
Colorectal Cancer Outcomes, Recurrence, and Complications in Persons With and Without Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Kelly B. Stein (2009)
Breast cancer incidence before and after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women: increased risk in the prediabetes phase
Adedayo A. Onitilo (2014)
A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010
Stephen S. Lim (2013)
Risk of Bladder Cancer Among Diabetic Patients Treated With Pioglitazone
J D Lewis (2011)
Metformin and the Risk of Cancer
Samy Suissa (2012)
Elevated insulin receptor content in human breast cancer.
Veronica Papa (1990)
Association between markers of glucose metabolism and risk of colorectal cancer
Jinming Xu (2016)
Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight, and breast cancer risk.
Piet A. van den Brandt (2000)
Frequent occurrence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in type 2 diabetes.
Sandeep Dhindsa (2004)
Insulin resistance--mechanisms, syndromes, and implications.
David E. Moller (1991)
Cancer, obesity, diabetes, and antidiabetic drugs: is the fog clearing?
Adi J. Klil-Drori (2017)
New Users of Metformin Are at Low Risk of Incident Cancer
Gillian Libby (2009)
Diabetes mellitus and breast cancer outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Kimberly S. Peairs (2011)
Global burden of cancer attributable to high body-mass index in 2012: a population-based study.
Melina Arnold (2015)
Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent
Yan Guo (2016)
Reduced screening mammography among women with diabetes.
Lorraine L. Lipscombe (2005)
Effect of Long-Acting Insulin Analogs on the Risk of Cancer: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies
Jennifer W. Wu (2016)
Fasting glucose and risk of colorectal cancer in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort
Hyeree Park (2017)
Association between tamoxifen treatment and diabetes: a population-based study.
Lorraine L. Lipscombe (2012)
Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
Marie Ng (2014)
[Origin of cancer cells].
Otto Heinrich Warburg (1956)
The association between a history of gestational diabetes mellitus and future risk for female malignancies
Oded Fuchs (2016)
Incidence of Diabetes After Cancer Development: A Korean National Cohort Study
Yul Hwangbo (2018)
No reduced risk of overall, colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate cancer with metformin therapy in diabetic patients: database analyses from Germany and the UK.
Bernd Kowall (2015)
Increased cancer-related mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes who use sulfonylureas or insulin.
Samantha L. Bowker (2006)
Causal Inference in Cancer Epidemiology: What Is the Role of Mendelian Randomization?
James Yarmolinsky (2018)
Diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose, and risk of cause-specific death.
Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally Seshasai (2011)
Evaluation of metformin in early breast cancer: a modification of the traditional paradigm for clinical testing of anti-cancer agents
Pamela J. Goodwin (2010)
Gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of the literature
Chuanbo Xie (2019)
Insulin mediated DNA damage in mammalian colon cells and human lymphocytes in vitro.
Eman Maher Othman (2013)
Competing risk of death: an important consideration in studies of older adults.
Sarah D Berry (2010)
Cancer screening rate in people with diabetes in the Korean population: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009
Kumban Walter Chuck (2017)
Those confounded vitamins: what can we learn from the differences between observational versus randomised trial evidence?
Deborah A. Lawlor (2004)
Adipositas und Krebsrisiko
Gert B. M. Mensink (2017)
Adult weight gain and adiposity-related cancers: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.
NaNa Keum (2015)
Insulin receptor isoforms and insulin receptor/insulin-like growth factor receptor hybrids in physiology and disease.
Antonino Belfiore (2009)
Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer After Obesity Surgery
Maryam Derogar (2013)
Carcinogenicity Risk Assessment Supports the Chronic Safety of Dapagliflozin, an Inhibitor of Sodium–Glucose Co-Transporter 2, in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Timothy P. Reilly (2014)
Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the Whitehall II study
Ádám G. Tabák (2009)
Estrogens protect pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis and prevent insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus in mice.
Cédric Le May (2006)
The association between diabetes and breast cancer stage at diagnosis: a population-based study
Lorraine L. Lipscombe (2015)
Metformin Does Not Affect Cancer Risk: A Cohort Study in the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink Analyzed Like an Intention-to-Treat Trial
Konstantinos K Tsilidis (2014)
Body mass index, abdominal fatness and pancreatic cancer risk: a systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Dagfinn Aune (2012)
Addressing the Perfect Storm: Biomarkers in Obesity and Pathophysiology of Cardiometabolic Risk.
Krasimira Aleksandrova (2018)
Mendelian randomization study of adiposity-related traits and risk of breast, ovarian, prostate, lung and colorectal cancer.
Chi Gao (2016)
Risk of diabetes mellitus in long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma.
Frederika A. van Nimwegen (2014)
Adult life after childhood cancer in Scandinavia: diabetes mellitus following treatment for cancer in childhood.
Anna S Holmqvist (2014)
Body mass index and cancer risk among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Hui-lin Xu (2018)
Associations of obesity and circulating insulin and glucose with breast cancer risk: a Mendelian randomization analysis.
Xiang Shu (2018)
Increasing disparities in the age-related incidences of colon and rectal cancers in the United States, 1975-2010.
Christina E. Bailey (2015)
Causes of death among cancer patients
NG Zaorsky (2017)
Risk of dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 (DPP‐4) inhibitors on site‐specific cancer: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
Jetty A Overbeek (2018)
Body fatness at young ages and risk of breast cancer throughout life.
Heather J. Baer (2010)
Overweight, Obesity, and Postmenopausal Invasive Breast Cancer Risk: A Secondary Analysis of the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Clinical Trials.
Marian L Neuhouser (2015)
Traditional breast cancer risk factors in relation to molecular subtypes of breast cancer
Rulla M. Tamimi (2011)
Diabetes mellitus in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Increased risk associated with radiation therapy: a report for the childhood cancer survivor study.
Lillian R Meacham (2009)
This paper is referenced by
Globular CTRP9 protects cardiomyocytes from palmitic acid-induced oxidative stress by enhancing autophagic flux.
Anju Zuo (2020)
Profiling of the germline mutation BRCA1: p.Ile1845fs in a large cohort of Han Chinese breast cancer
Yu Wu (2019)