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Cortical Superficial Siderosis Progression In Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

Thanakit Pongpitakmetha, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Marco Pasi, G. Boulouis, Li Xiong, A. Warren, K. Schwab, J. Rosand, M. E. Gurol, S. Greenberg, A. Viswanathan, A. Charidimou
Published 2020 · Medicine
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Objective To investigate the prevalence, predictors, and clinical relevance of cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) progression in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Methods Consecutive patients with symptomatic CAA meeting Boston criteria in a prospective cohort underwent baseline and follow-up MRI within 1 year. cSS progression was evaluated on an ordinal scale and categorized into mild (score 1–2 = cSS extension within an already present cSS focus or appearance of 1 new cSS focus) and severe progression (score 3–4 = appearance of ≥2 new cSS foci). Binominal and ordinal multivariable logistic regression were used to determine cSS progression predictors. We investigated future lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk in survival analysis models. Results We included 79 patients with CAA (mean age, 69.2 years), 56 (71%) with lobar ICH at baseline. cSS progression was detected in 23 (29%) patients: 15 (19%) patients had mild and 8 (10%) severe progression. In binominal multivariable logistic regression, ICH presence (odds ratio [OR], 7.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75–53.52; p = 0.016) and baseline cSS (OR, 10.41; 95% CI, 2.84–52.83; p = 0.001) were independent predictors of cSS progression. In similar models, presence of disseminated (but not focal) cSS at baseline (OR, 5.58; 95% CI, 1.81–19.41; p = 0.004) was an independent predictor of cSS progression. Results were similar in ordinal multivariable logistic regression models. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, severe cSS progression was independently associated with increased future ICH risk (HR, 5.90; 95% CI, 1.30–26.68; p = 0.021). Conclusions cSS evolution on MRI is common in patients with symptomatic CAA and might be a potential biomarker for assessing disease severity and future ICH risk. External validation of these findings is warranted.
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