REDUCED CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTION AND ENHANCED PERFORMANCE IN POULTRY WITH BIOACTIVE PHENOLICS THROUGH EPIGENETIC MODULATION OF THE GUT MICROBIOME
Published 2017 · Biology
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Title of Dissertation: REDUCED CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTION AND ENHANCED PERFORMANCE IN POULTRY WITH BIOACTIVE PHENOLICS THROUGH EPIGENETIC MODULATION OF THE GUT MICROBIOME Serajus Salaheen Doctor of Philosophy 2017 Dissertation directed by: Dr. Debabrata Biswas Department of Animal and Avian Sciences University of Maryland, College Park Campylobacter jejuni, a major enteric pathogen and a natural resident in the poultry gut, causes gastrointestinal illness followed by severe post-infection complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis, myocarditis, and ulcerative colitis in humans. Risk assessment studies have projected a 30-fold reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases with only a 100-fold reduction in the number of C. jejuni colonizing the poultry gut. Current commercial poultry production practices involve use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP); modulation of gut microbiota with AGPs for food safety and enhanced performance in poultry can be justified until acquisition of antibiotic resistance in zoonoses through inter-bacterial transfer of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in a complex microbial community is considered. As an alternative, natural phenolics extracted from by-products of berry juice industry, with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and vasodilatory activities, demonstrate promising prospects. In this study, we adopted massspectrometry, microbiological, phylogenetic, and metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE) from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) pomaces as AGP alternative. We detected that major phenolics in BPE included, but were not limited to, apigenin, catechol, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, coumarin, ellagic acid, eugenols, flavan, gallic acid, gingerol, glucosides, glucuronides, myricetin, phenols, quercetin, quinones, rhamnosides, stilbenol, tannins, triamcinolone, and xanthine. BPE reduced C. jejuni growth and motility in vitro, resulting in lower adherence and invasiveness to chicken fibroblast cells. Anti-inflammatory effects of BPE significantly reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes in chick macrophage cell line ex vivo. Furthermore, BPE reduced the colonization of C. jejuni in broiler cecum by 1 to 5 logs while increasing broiler weight by 6% compared to 9.5% with commercial AGPs. Metagenomic analysis of broiler gut indicated that BPE caused an AGP-like pattern in bacterial communities with a comparative increase of Firmicutes and a concomitant reduction of Bacteroidetes in broiler ceca. AGP supplementation clearly caused phage induction and a richer resistome profile in the cecal microbiome compared to BPE. Functional characterization of cecal microbiomes revealed a significant variation in the abundance of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism. Our findings established a baseline upon which mechanisms of plant based antimicrobial performance-enhancers in regulation of animal growth can be investigated. REDUCED CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTION AND ENHANCED PERFORMANCE IN POULTRY WITH BIOACTIVE PHENOLICS THROUGH EPIGENETIC MODULATION OF THE GUT MICROBIOME
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Todd J. Treangen (2012)
Nonradioactive method to study genetic profiles of natural bacterial communities by PCR-single-strand-conformation polymorphism.
Dong-Young Lee (1996)
Quantitative risk assessment of human campylobacteriosis associated with thermophilic Campylobacter species in chickens.
Hanne Rosenquist (2003)
An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest
Peter J. Turnbaugh (2006)
A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins
Peter J. Turnbaugh (2009)
Observations on the persistence and vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serovars Pullorum and Gallinarum in chickens: Effect of bacterial and host genetic background
Angelo Berchieri (2001)
Molecular Diversity of Lactobacillus spp. and Other Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Human Intestine as Determined by Specific Amplification of 16S Ribosomal DNA
Hans Ghj Heilig (2002)
Influence of Antimicrobial Feed Additives on Broiler Commensal Posthatch Gut Microbiota Development and Performance †
Valeria A. Torok (2011)
Quantification of Campylobacter on the surface and in the muscle of chicken legs at retail.
Kathrin M. Scherer (2006)
Clinical applications of urinary organic acids. Part I: Detoxification markers.
Richard S. Lord (2008)
Salmonella enterica Serovars Gallinarum and Pullorum Expressing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Type 1 Fimbriae Exhibit Increased Invasiveness for Mammalian Cells
Rebecca L. Wilson (2000)
The Phenolic Hydroxyl Group of Carvacrol Is Essential for Action against the Food-Borne Pathogen Bacillus cereus
A. Ultee (2002)
Population Dynamics of Salmonella enterica Serotypes in Commercial Egg and Poultry Production
Steven L. Foley (2011)
A Microbiological Comparison of Poultry Products Obtained from Farmers' Markets and Supermarkets in Pennsylvania
Joshua A. Scheinberg (2012)
Control of Salmonella in foods by using essential oils: A review
Vivek K Bajpai (2012)
Bioconversion of anthocyanin glycosides by Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus
Marta Puig Ávila (2009)