The definition of an exclusive panel of genetic markers is of high importance to initially detect among this review population. Therefore, we gave a summary of each main genetic marker among Iranian patients with thyroid cancer for the first time which were classified based on their cellular function. Due to the results, a significant relationship was found between SNP in codons 194, 280, and 399 (XRCC1), Allele 3434Thr (XRCC7), GC or CC genotype 31, G/C (Survivin), 399G>A (XRCC1), Tru9I (vitamin D receptor), G‐D haplotype (MDM2), TT genotype, −656 G/T (IL-18), TAGTT haplotype (IL-18), G allele in +49 A>G (CTLA-4), +7146 G/A (PD-1.3), +7785 C/T (PD-1.5), rs1143770 (let7a‐2), rs4938723 (pri‐mir‐34b/c) genes, and thyroid cancers. Moreover, SNP in 677C-->T (MTHFR), GG genotype Asp1312Gly (thyroglobulin), 2259C>T (Rad52), R188H, (XRCC2), T241M (XRCC3) had higher risks of thyroid cancer and lower risks were observed in −16 Ins-Pro (p53), rs3742330 (DICER1). At last, the protective effects were explored in 127 CC genotype (IL-18), rs6877842 (DROSHA). Conduct further studies on the types of DNA repair gene polymorphisms with a larger number in the thyroid cancer using modern methods such as SNP array so that these genes could be used as a biomarker in prediction, diagnosis, and treatment of thyroid cancer. This review presents for the first time a summary of important genetic markers in Iranian patients with thyroid cancer.