Acetylcholinesterase And Insect Growth Inhibitory Activities Of Gutierrezia Microcephala On Fall Army Worm Spodoptera Frugiperda J. E. Smith
From the aerial parts of Gutierrezia microcephala (Asteraceae), four oxyflavones were isolated, namely 5,7,2′-trihydroxy-3,6,8,4′,5′-pentamethoxyflavone (1); 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxyflavone (2); 5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-3,6,8,5′-tetramethoxyflavone (3); 5,2′-dihydroxy- 3,6,7,8,4′,5′-hexamethoxyflavone (4), and an ent-clerodane, bacchabolivic acid (5). Compounds 1-5, the synthetic methyl ester (6 ), n-hexane and MeOH extracts were evaluated against the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Gedunin, a known insect growth regulator isolated from Cedrela spp. was used as a positive control. When tested for activity on neonate larvae into the no-choice artificial diet bioassay, flavone (1), clerodane (5), its methyl ester (6), MeOH and n-hexane extracts caused significant larval mortality with MC50 of 3.9, 10.7, 3.46. 7.95 and 7.5 ppm at 7 days, respectively, as well as growth reduction. They also increased the development time of surviving larvae and a significant delay in time to pupation and adult emergence. Acute toxicity against adults of S. frugiperda was also found, 5, 6 , gedunin and n-hexane extract had the most potent activity with LD50 value of 6.59, 15.05, 10.78, and 12.79 ppm, respectively. In addition, MeOH, n-hexane extracts, 5, 6 and gedunin caused acetylcholinesterase inhibition with 93.7,100,90.2,62.0 and 100% at 50.0 ppm, respectively; whereas 1-4 exhibited only moderate inhibitory activity. Compounds 1,5 and 6 showed inhibitory activities comparable with gedunin. These compounds could be responsible of the insect growth inhibitory activity of this plant.