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Cyclodextrin-based SiRNA Delivery Nanocarriers: A State-of-the-art Review

K. Chaturvedi, K. Ganguly, A. R. Kulkarni, V. H. Kulkarni, Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda, W. Rudzinski, T. M. Aminabhavi
Published 2011 · Materials Science, Medicine

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Introduction: The discovery of synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) has led to a surge of interest in harnessing RNA interference (RNAi) technology for biomedical applications and drug development. Even though siRNA can be a powerful therapeutic drug, its delivery remains a major challenge, due to the difficulty in its cellular uptake. Naked siRNA has a biological half-life of less than an hour in human plasma. To increase the lifetime and improve its therapeutic efficacy, non-viral vectors have been developed. As a natural evolution, cyclodextrins (CDs), which are natural cyclic oligosaccharides, have recently been applied as delivery vehicles for siRNA, and this in turn, has led to a surge of interest in this area. Areas covered: This review discusses the recent advances made in the design of delivery strategies for siRNA, focusing on CD-based delivery vectors, because these have demonstrated clinical success. The methods of preparation of CD-based vectors, their characterization, transfection efficiencies, cellular toxicity, preclinical and clinical trials are also addressed, as well as future therapeutic applications. Expert opinion: siRNA-mediated RNAi therapeutics is beginning to transform healthcare, particularly, for the treatment of solid tumors. For example, CALAA01, a targeted, self-assembling nanoparticle system based on CD complexed with siRNA has been effective in phase I clinical trials. Although siRNA therapeutics suffers from problems related to off-target effects and non-specific gene silencing, these problems can be overcome by reducing the nanoparticle size, improving the targeting efficiency and by modifying the primary sequence of the siRNA.
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