Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Diagnostic Techniques For Bacterial Vaginosis And Vulvovaginal Candidiasis - Requirement For A Simple Differential Test.

J. Sobel, P. Hay
Published 2010 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) account for ∼ 90% of infectious cases of vaginitis in women. Differentiating between these two conditions based on clinical features can be difficult owing to the wide variety of signs and symptoms observed. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW Current diagnostic techniques in the clinical setting are inadequate, and even trained physicians frequently fail to make a correct diagnosis. New techniques for the diagnosis of VVC and BV are being developed, but almost all require specialised equipment, with expensive reagents, and are laborious and time-consuming. Furthermore, many women prefer to self-diagnose their condition, but are more likely to assume they have VVC, having little awareness of BV. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN The reader will be introduced to the specific diagnostic techniques for VVC and BV. Following this, recent advances and new approaches in diagnosis will be discussed. TAKE HOME MESSAGE Misdiagnosis may result in delay of correct treatment with resulting sequelae, particularly for BV. There is a need for a simple, rapid, unequivocal and economic diagnostic test that can differentiate between BV and VVC. This would be of use both to physicians and to women who wish to self-diagnose and self-medicate, and would also help educate women about the possible alternative causes of vaginitis and vulvovaginal symptoms.
This paper references
10.1016/0002-9378(93)90340-O
Diagnostic microbiology of bacterial vaginosis.
S. Hillier (1993)
10.1157/13123838
OriginalesUtilidad del sistema Affirm VPIII y de la prueba L-Pap para el diagnóstico de vaginosis bacterianaBenefits of Affirm VIII and L-PAP in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis
R. Flores-Paz (2008)
10.1128/JCM.01272-07
Targeted PCR for Detection of Vaginal Bacteria Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis
D. Fredricks (2007)
10.1159/000325864
Microscopic Diagnosis of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Stained Vaginal Smears by Dutch General Practitioners
M. K. Engberts (2007)
10.1097/00001432-200402000-00008
Bacterial vaginosis and miscarriage
P. Hay (2004)
10.1016/J.AJOG.2004.06.089
Intravaginal metronidazole gel versus metronidazole plus nystatin ovules for bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled trial.
S. Sánchez (2004)
10.1016/j.ijgo.2007.06.002
Methylrosaniline chloride stained vaginal smears for the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis
X. Liu (2007)
10.1016/j.ijgo.2006.09.008
Affirm VP III in the detection and identification of Candida species in vaginitis
G. Petrikkos (2007)
10.1080/10647440400009839
Experience with routine vaginal pH testing in a family practice setting.
A. Pavletic (2004)
10.1016/S0002-9378(98)80001-X
Vulvovaginal candidiasis: epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations.
J. Sobel (1998)
10.1007/s00404-008-0681-9
Relationship between clinical diagnosis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and detection of Candida species by culture and polymerase chain reaction
T. Weissenbacher (2008)
10.1128/JCM.39.9.3197-3199.2001
Evaluation of the Affirm Ambient Temperature Transport System for the Detection and Identification ofTrichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, andCandida Species from Vaginal Fluid Specimens
H. Brown (2001)
10.1128/JCM.44.2.366-373.2006
Use of an Adaptation of a Commercially Available PCR Assay Aimed at Diagnosis of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea To Detect Trichomonas vaginalis in Urogenital Specimens
B. Van Der Pol (2006)
10.1016/0002-9378(88)90108-1
Establishing a correct diagnosis of vulvovaginal infection.
R. Kaufman (1988)
10.1080/13814780701814929
Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used by Dutch general practitioners
M. K. Engberts (2008)
10.1007/S11908-009-0021-7
New concepts in the etiology of bacterial vaginosis
J. Schwebke (2009)
10.1007/s10995-007-0205-4
Relative performance of three methods for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy
Vijaya K. Hogan (2007)
Bacterial vaginosis - More questions than answers.
M. Pirotta (2009)
10.1093/clinids/14.Supplement_1.S148
Pathogenesis and treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.
J. Sobel (1992)
10.1016/J.AJOG.2006.04.008
The VI-SENSE-vaginal discharge self-test to facilitate management of vaginal symptoms.
A. Geva (2006)
10.1111/j.1600-0463.2006.apm_485.x
Use of DNA hybridization test for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis in women with symptoms suggestive of infection
Horu Gazi (2006)
10.1128/jcm.29.2.297-301.1991
Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of gram stain interpretation.
R. Nugent (1991)
10.1136/sti.77.6.402
Mucinases and sialidases: their role in the pathogenesis of sexually transmitted infections in the female genital tract
R. Wiggins (2001)
10.1503/CMAJ.1041174
Bacterial vaginosis: more questions than answers
E. Weir (2004)
10.1067/MOB.2002.125897
Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis and susceptibility to fluconazole in women.
T. Bauters (2002)
10.1002/PDS.960
Trends in prescribing for vulvovaginal candidiasis in the United States.
L. McCaig (2005)
10.1017/S095026880700787X
Vaginal symptoms and bacterial vaginosis (BV): how useful is self-report? Development of a screening tool for predicting BV status.
D. Nelson (2007)
10.1155/2005/230319
The laboratory diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.
D. Money (2005)
10.1016/0022-1759(93)90078-L
An immunoassay for the rapid and specific detection of three sialidase-producing clostridia causing gas gangrene.
T. Roggentin (1993)
10.1099/JMM.0.46562-0
Rapid characterization of the normal and disturbed vaginal microbiota by application of 16S rRNA gene terminal RFLP fingerprinting.
F. L. Thies (2007)
10.1111/j.1600-0463.2008.00808.x
The lower genital tract microbiota in relation to cytokine‐, SLPI‐ and endotoxin levels: application of checkerboard DNA‐DNA hybridization (CDH)
Natalia Nikolaitchouk (2008)
10.1097/00007435-200110000-00003
Comparison of Clindamycin Phosphate Vaginal Cream With Triple Sulfonamide Vaginal Cream in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis
W. McCormack (2001)
10.1783/147118906775275172
FFPRHC and BASHH Guidance (January 2006) The management of women of reproductive age attending non-genitourinary medicine settings complaining of vaginal discharge
Hiv (2006)
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181c04865
Race of Male Sex Partners and Occurrence of Bacterial Vaginosis
M. Klebanoff (2010)
BVBLUE test for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women attending antenatal care at Phramongkutklao Hospital.
P. Sumeksri (2005)
10.1157/13123838
Utilidad del sistema Affirm VPIII y de la prueba L-Pap para el diagnóstico de vaginosis bacteriana
R. Flores-Paz (2008)
10.1016/J.AJOG.2007.05.035
Among pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis, the hydrolytic enzymes sialidase and prolidase are positively associated with interleukin-1beta.
S. Cauci (2008)
10.1155/S1064744901000187
The Classic Approach to Diagnosis of Vulvovaginitis: A Critical Analysis
J. Bornstein (2001)
10.1128/AEM.00284-08
Analysis of Vaginal Lactobacilli from Healthy and Infected Brazilian Women
R. Martínez (2008)
10.1186/1476-0711-5-4
Throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?
A. Schwiertz (2005)
10.1016/J.MCP.2007.08.002
Rapid detection of Atopobium vaginae and association with organisms implicated in bacterial vaginosis.
J. Trama (2008)
10.1128/JCM.02485-07
Survey of Vaginal-Flora Candida Species Isolates from Women of Different Age Groups by Use of Species-Specific PCR Detection
John-Paul Vermitsky (2008)
10.1099/JMM.0.46715-0
Prospective evaluation of the new chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of the major pathogenic Candida species.
B. Sendid (2007)
10.1111/J.1439-0507.2006.01289.X
Prevalence and phenotypic evaluation of Candida dubliniensis in pregnant women with vulvovaginal candidosis in a university hospital in Ankara.
E. Us (2007)
Risultati preliminari dello studio epidemiologico Italiano sulle vulvovaginiti
F. Boselli (2004)
10.2298/VSP0804273M
[Impact of vaginal and cervical colonisation/infection on preterm delivery].
Gordana Mijović (2008)
10.1056/NEJMCP053720
Clinical practice. Acute vulvovaginitis.
L. Eckert (2006)
10.1001/JAMA.291.11.1368
Evaluation of vaginal complaints.
M. Anderson (2004)
10.1128/CMR.9.3.335
Immunopathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.
P. Fidel (1996)
10.1016/0009-8981(91)90062-H
Application of sialidase antibodies for the diagnosis of clostridial infections.
P. Roggentin (1991)
10.1080/00016340600589776
Use of pH/whiff test or QuickVue Advanced® pH and Amines test for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and prevention of postabortion pelvic inflammatory disease
G. Charonis (2006)
10.1016/J.AJOG.2005.11.041
Suppressive antibacterial therapy with 0.75% metronidazole vaginal gel to prevent recurrent bacterial vaginosis.
J. Sobel (2006)
10.1024/0040-5930.63.2.164B
Conn's current therapy
R. Rakel (2006)
10.1016/S0732-8893(98)00119-9
Evaluation of the new API Candida system for identification of the most clinically important yeast species.
S. Bernal (1998)
10.1016/0002-9343(83)91112-9
Nonspecific vaginitis. Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations.
R. Amsel (1983)
10.1097/00007435-199001000-00011
Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Complicating Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis
V. Redondo-Lopez (1990)
10.1086/588661
Molecular quantification of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae loads to predict bacterial vaginosis.
J. Ménard (2008)
10.1002/dc.20820
Oncotic colpocytology stained with Harris–Shorr in the observation of vaginal microorganisms
A. Storti-Filho (2008)
10.1097/00029330-200706010-00007
Analysis of genital Candida albicans infection by rapid microsatellite markers genotyping.
Wei-min Shi (2007)
10.1016/J.AJOG.2006.11.025
Rapid testing for vaginal yeast detection: a prospective study.
A. Chatwani (2007)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar