Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Sexual Dimorphism Using Elliptical Fourier Analysis: Shape Differences In The Craniofacial Complex

P. Lestrel, E. Kanazawa, C. Wolfe
Published 2011 · Biology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The assessment of sexual dimorphism plays an essential role in numerous disciplines such as: (1) forensics, with its concern with skeletal identification, including sexing; (2) archeology, where the sexing of skeletal materials is an essential aspect; (3) primatology, where sex differences are diverse; (4) paleoanthropology, where the identification of sex can influence taxonomic and phylogenetic decisions, and (5) growth and development, where one strives to identify differences before and after puberty. Other disciplines where sexual dimorphism plays an important function include orthodontics, gerontology, nutrition, and medicine. Quantitative studies of morphological forms in general, and sexual dimorphism in particular, is not a trivial endeavor in that at least two aspects are involved, namely size and shape. Focusing on the human skeletal system, sexual dimorphism affects all bones, including the cranium, pelvis, long bones, and vertebral column. However, the overwhelming numbers of studies of sexual dimorphism are based solely on size differences. These studies have repeatedly demonstrated that males are larger for most dimensions. The question of shape differences, if indeed present, cannot be readily inferred from these studies. Consequently, a number of studies were initiated, over some 20 years duration, that specifically focused on the presence of sexually dimorphic shape changes in the skeletal craniofacial complex. The following anatomical structures were examined: (1) the human nasal bones, (2) the primate cranial base, (3) the human cranial base, (4) the human dental arch, (5) the human mandibular arch, and (6) the human cranial vault. These six datasets involved 16 samples for a total of 1110 specimens. Every dataset generated statistically significant sexually dimorphic differences in shape. Thus, it is apparent that the craniofacial complex not only exhibits size differences but also specific shape differences.
This paper references
10.1002/ajpa.1330460305
Analysis of developmental processes possibly related to human dental sexual dimorphism in permanent and deciduous canines.
M. Moss (1977)
Quantitative analysis of nasal bone growth: the first year of life
P. E. Lestrel (1991)
1991c) A longitudinal study of the human nasal bone in norma lateralis
P. E. Lestrel (1991)
10.1146/ANNUREV.ANTHRO.31.040402.085407
Variation in Human Body Size and Shape
C. Ruff (2002)
10.2307/2792
A Handbook of Living Primates
L. H. Matthews (1969)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199612)101:4<545::AID-AJPA8>3.0.CO;2-U
Mandibular ramus flexure--indicator of sexual dimorphism?
K. Koski (1996)
10.1002/ajpa.1330910108
Longitudinal study of cranial base shape changes in Macaca nemestrina.
P. Lestrel (1993)
10.1002/AJPA.20209
Sexual dimorphism in the Japanese cranial base: a Fourier-wavelet representation.
P. Lestrel (2005)
10.1016/0002-9416(69)90232-2
A computerized geometric analysis of human dental arch form.
J. H. Currier (1969)
10.1007/978-1-4684-0817-1_11
Protein-Energy Malnutrition and Growth
L. Malcolm (1979)
10.1177/00220345770560062601
Sex Discriminatory Effectiveness Using Combinations of Permanent Teeth
S. Garn (1977)
10.1080/03014467500000691
Sexual differentiation in the innominate bone studied by multivariate analysis.
M. H. Day (1975)
10.1002/ajpa.1330310510
Rise of forensic anthropology
M. Işcan (1988)
10.1016/0047-2484(80)90052-4
Sexual dimorphism and human evolution: An overview
G. Armelagos (1980)
10.1016/0002-9416(55)90153-6
The integration of facial skeletal variants
S.Eugene Coben (1955)
10.1016/S0002-9416(81)90464-4
Dental arch shape: a statistical analysis using conic sections.
P. Sampson (1981)
Fourier analysis of human soft tissue facial shape: sex differences in normal adults.
V. Ferrario (1995)
A longitudinal study of the human nasal bone : elliptic Fourier descriptors
E. LestrelP.
10.1016/0003-9969(66)90164-6
An orthogonal analysis of the form, symmetry and asymmetry of the dental arch.
K. Lu (1966)
A handbook of living primates: morphology, ecology and behaviour of nonhuman primates
J. R. Napier (1967)
2011 growth of French-Canadian children 6 to 10 years of age
Vol (2011)
10.1002/ajhb.1310010204
Method for analyzing complex two‐dimensional forms: Elliptical Fourier functions
P. Lestrel (1989)
10.2307/2531013
Statistical analysis of arch shape with conic sections.
P. Sampson (1983)
Arch shape and space balance determined by arcogramme technique.
P. Herren (1973)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199603)99:3<473::AID-AJPA8>3.0.CO;2-X
Mandibular ramus flexure: a new morphologic indicator of sexual dimorphism in the human skeleton.
S. R. Loth (1996)
10.1179/bjo.16.2.85
An Assessment of the Fit of a Parabolic Curve to Pre- and Post-Treatment Dental Arches
M. Jones (1989)
Biological shape and visual science. I.
H. Blum (1973)
10.1002/ajpa.1330250511
Physical anthropological approaches to aging
G. Borkan (1982)
10.2307/2412635
The Measurement of Biological Shape and Shape Change.
Joel Cracraft (1978)
10.1002/ajpa.1330220212
SEX DETERMINATION BY DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF THE MANDIBLE.
E. Giles (1964)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199801)105:1<91::AID-AJPA9>3.0.CO;2-G
Mandibular ramus flexure is a good indicator of sexual dimorphism.
S. R. Loth (1998)
10.1038/350389b0
Forensic anthropology
M. Green (1991)
10.1002/ajpa.1330360115
Disproportionate sexual dimorphism in the human face.
W. Hunter (1972)
Cranial base shape variation with age: a longitudinal study of shape using Fourier analysis.
P. Lestrel (1986)
puterized shape analysis of the Japanese mandible : sexual dimorphism
E. LestrelP. (2006)
10.1177/00220345770560073101
Use of Crown Areas in Odontometric Analyses
S. Garn (1977)
10.1212/wnl.44.12_suppl_10.s5
INTRODUCTION
R. Schiffer (1994)
10.1002/ajpa.1330370208
On the systematic bias in skeletal sexing.
K. Weiss (1972)
10.1017/CBO9780511529870
Fourier Descriptors and their Applications in Biology
P. Lestrel (1997)
10.1142/9789814355247_0012
Computational Shape Analysis: Based on a Fourier-Wavelet Representation of the Fossil Human Cranial Vault
Pete E. Lestrel (2011)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(200004)111:4<573::AID-AJPA11>3.0.CO;2-I
Technical note: evaluating mandibular ramus flexure as a morphological indicator of sex.
C. A. Hill (2000)
10.2307/1141003
The human skeleton in forensic medicine. I.
W. M. Krogman (1955)
Sexual dimorphism in human vertebral body shape.
J. Taylor (1984)
10.1537/ASE.00069
A Fourier-wavelet representation of 2-D shapes : sexual dimorphism in the Japanese cranial base
P. Lestrel (2004)
10.1016/0146-664X(79)90062-5
The line-skeleton
F. Bookstein (1979)
10.1597/1545-1569(1996)033<0206:FAOCS>2.3.CO;2
Fourier analysis of cephalometric shapes.
V. Ferrario (1996)
Clinical applications of physical anthropol
K. RobsonJ.R. (1975)
Quantitative analysis of nasal bone growth: one to seventeen years of age
P. E. Lestrel (1991)
10.1002/ajpa.1330240104
Sex determination of Finnish crania by discriminant function analysis.
Pauli Kajanoja (1966)
10.3109/00016357509026347
Sex differences in craniofacial morphology.
C. H. Ingerslev (1975)
Computerized shape analysis of the Japanese mandible: sexual dimorphism
P. E. Lestrel (2006)
Some approaches toward the mathematical modeling of the craniofacial complex.
P. Lestrel (1989)
10.2307/2534038
Morphometric Tools For Landmark Data
F. Bookstein (1991)
10.1097/00004424-199601000-00001
Shape of the human corpus callosum in childhood. Elliptic Fourier analysis on midsagittal magnetic resonance scans.
V. Ferrario (1996)
10.1043/0003-3219(1998)068<0029:TFOTHD>2.3.CO;2
The form of the human dental arch.
Stanley Braun (1998)
10.3325/cmj.2013.54.272
Sex determination in skeletal remains from the medieval Eastern Adriatic coast – discriminant function analysis of humeri
Željana Bašić (2013)
10.1002/ajpa.1330280507
Sex differences in environmental sensitivity during growth and development
Sara Stinson (1985)
10.1111/j.1558-5646.1984.tb00346.x
SEX CHROMOSOMES AND THE EVOLUTION OF SEXUAL DIMORPHISM
W. Rice (1984)
10.1016/0010-468X(79)90061-8
A computer program for the analysis of dental arch form using the cubic spline function.
E. Begole (1979)
10.1016/0047-2484(80)90051-2
Sexual dimorphism and human tooth size differences
C. Brace (1980)
10.1016/0146-664X(82)90034-X
Elliptic Fourier features of a closed contour
F. Kuhl (1982)
10.1016/0047-2484(80)90088-3
Sex-diagnosis of isolated Os coxae by discriminant functions
H. Seidler (1980)
Problems in assessing nutritional status in the field
J.R.K. Robson (1975)
10.1007/s004140100219
Sexual dimorphism of the human mandible: demonstration by elliptical Fourier analysis
M. Schmittbuhl (2001)
10.2307/1422554
Visual Information Processing
J. Jonides (1982)
Sexual dimorphism in the pelvic bones of the Tellem, a medieval Negro population from the Mali Republic.
Glanville Ev (1967)
The ideal form of the human dental arcade, with some prosthetic application.
M. Macconaill (1949)
Longitudinal Study Of Mandibular Growth Between Nine And Thirteen Years As A Basis For An Attempt Of Its Prediction
G. Maj (2009)
10.1002/ajpa.1330310202
Sex differences in the growth of the human bony pelvis.
W. H. Coleman (1969)
10.1177/00220345800590092901
Application of the Cubic Spline Function in the Description of Dental Arch Form
E. Begole (1980)
10.1002/ajpa.1330710106
Method for analyzing outlines with an application to recent Japanese crania.
Kazuhiro Yasui (1986)
10.1002/AJPA.10011
Sexual dimorphism in primate evolution.
J. M. Plavcan (2001)
10.1002/ajpa.1330250510
Clinical applications of physical anthropology
M. Robinow (1982)
10.1126/science.493973
Angular invariants in developing human mandibles.
Rick L. Webber (1979)
10.1016/S0022-5193(84)80104-6
A statistical method for biological shape comparisons.
F. Bookstein (1984)
10.1093/sysbio/35.3.381
Finite-element scaling applied to sexual dimorphism in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) facial growth
J. Cheverud (1986)
10.1002/AJPA.20476
Variations of the mandibular shape in extant hominoids: Generic, specific, and subspecific quantification using elliptical fourier analysis in lateral view.
M. Schmittbuhl (2007)
10.5772/2960
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM
D. Frayer (2005)
10.1093/EJO/19.6.669
Effect of growth and development on cephalometric shapes in orthodontic patients: a Fourier analysis.
V. Ferrario (1997)
10.1146/annurev.an.06.100177.000441
Nutritional Anthropology and Biological Adaptation
J. Haas (1977)
10.1093/sysbio/35.2.241
Comment on Uses of Homologous-point Measures in Systematics: a Reply to Bookstein Et Al.
D. Read (1986)
10.1177/00220345670460055801
Genetic Control of Sexual Dimorphism in Tooth Size
S. Garn (1967)
10.1016/0379-0738(90)90204-C
Fourier analysis of the forehead shape of skull and sex determination by use of computer.
M. Inoue (1990)
Sexual dimorphism in relation to the contractile properties of human muscle
C.T.M. Davies (1985)
10.1016/S0140-6736(62)90378-1
SEX CHROMOSOMES AND THE LAW
W. Brown (1962)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(1996)23+<11::AID-AJPA2>3.0.CO;2-C
Evolution of sex differences in spatial cognition
Thomas Wynn (1996)
10.1002/ajp.1350040102
Sexual dimorphisms in the overall proportions of primates
C. Oxnard (1983)
Elliptic Fourier analysis of mandibular shape.
V. Ferrario (1996)
10.1016/0047-2484(80)90050-0
Sexual dimorphism and cultural evolution in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene of Europe
D. W. Frayer (1980)
10.1146/annurev.an.24.100195.003113
Hormones, Sex, and Gender
C. Worthman (1995)
A longitudinal study of the human nasal bone in norma lateralis : size and shape considerations
E. LestrelP.
10.1142/3912
Morphometrics For The Life Sciences
P. Lestrel (2000)
10.1002/ar.1091020105
Sex differences in the distribution of tissue components in the human leg from birth to maturity
E. L. Reynolds (1948)
Sexual dimorphism and discriminant function sexing in indigenous
D. Franklin (2005)
10.1146/annurev.an.22.100193.002143
Biological Anthropology and Human Aging: Some Current Directions in Aging Research
D. Crews (1993)
10.1002/ajpa.1330850405
Some comments on coordinate-free and scale-invariant methods in morphometrics.
S. Lele (1991)
10.1002/ajpa.1330250108
Statistical techniques for sex and race determination. Some comments in defense.
Eugene Giles (1966)
10.1002/ajpa.1330860307
Euclidean distance matrix analysis: a coordinate-free approach for comparing biological shapes using landmark data.
S. Lele (1991)
10.1007/978-1-4684-2622-9_9
Body composition in adolescence.
G. Forbes (1981)
10.1016/0047-2484(80)90089-5
An evaluation of the sexual dimorphism of the human innominate bone
R. Segebarth-Orban (1980)
10.1097/00004424-199407000-00003
Shape of the Human Corpus Callosum: Elliptic Fourier Analysis on Midsagittal Magnetic Resonance Scans
V. Ferrario (1994)
Angular invariants in developing human
R. L. Webber (1979)
Sexual selection, dimorphism, and social organization in primates
J. H. Crook (1972)
Sexual dimorphism in the human mandible: Fourier descriptors
P. E. Lestrel (2010)
The distribution of cranial capacity values among living hominoids
P. V. Tobias (1971)
Geometric morphometrics of the human skull
A. Rosas (2002)
Comparison of cranial sex determination by univariate and multivariate analysis
A. G. Deshmukh (2006)
10.1016/J.JCHB.2004.08.001
Sexual dimorphism and discriminant function sexing in indigenous South African crania.
D. Franklin (2005)
10.1006/JHEV.2000.0402
Elliptical fourier analysis of symphyseal shape in great ape mandibles.
D. J. Daegling (2000)
10.1002/AJPA.10023
Thin-plate spline analysis of allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex.
A. Rosas (2002)
Some approaches toward the mathematical modeling of the craniofacial complex.
Lestrel Pe (1989)
10.1109/TPAMI.1982.4767267
Medial Axis Transformation of a Planar Shape
D. Lee (1982)
10.1126/science.7089533
Sexual dimorphism in the human corpus callosum.
C. deLacoste-Utamsing (1982)
10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania.
E. Giles (1963)
Human Skeletal Remains, 3rd edn. Taraxacum, Washington
D. H. Ubelaker (1999)
1990b) A longitudinal study of the human nasal bone: elliptic Fourier descriptors
P. E. Lestrel (1990)
Evolution of the human growth curve.
A. Laird (1967)
10.1002/ajpa.1330500111
Sex discriminatory effectiveness using combinations of root lengths and crown diameters.
S. Garn (1978)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199801)105:1<89::AID-AJPA8>3.0.CO;2-8
Mandibular ramus flexure in an Indonesian population.
N. S. Indrayana (1998)
10.1146/annurev.an.10.100181.001041
Endocrine-Environment Interaction in Human Variability
F. E. Purifoy (1981)
10.1043/0003-3219(1993)063<0047:SDINCG>2.0.CO;2
Sexual dimorphism in normal craniofacial growth.
W. Ursi (1993)
Numerical representation of radiographic images: the human nasal bone
P. E. Lestrel (1990)
Delicacy of fibres in the brain: early and recent neuropsychological explanations of sex differences in cognition and temperament
L. J. Harris (1985)
10.1007/978-1-4684-2622-9_13
The Fundamentals of Cranial and Facial Growth
H. Israel (1978)
10.1002/ajhb.1310070407
Sexual dimorphism in modern Japanese crania
Mehmet Yaşar İşcan (1995)
10.1016/J.AJODO.2003.05.008
A quantitative approach for measuring crowding in the dental arch: Fourier descriptors.
P. Lestrel (2004)
10.1007/978-1-4684-0817-1_12
Population Differences in Growth: Environmental and Genetic Factors
P. Eveleth (1979)
10.1002/ajpa.1330300214
A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis.
T. W. Phenice (1969)
10.1002/AJPA.20738
The utility of carpals for sex assessment: a preliminary study.
C. Sulzmann (2008)
10.1002/ajpa.1330080113
A study of the differences between male and female skulls.
J. Keen (1950)
10.3928/0090-4481-19790901-11
HUMAN GROWTH VOL. 2: POSTNATAL GROWTH
H. Evans (1979)
10.1016/j.jchb.2010.07.002
Cranial vault shape in fossil hominids: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.
Pete E. Lestrel (2010)
Prediction of arch size and form
P. Herren (1976)
Morphometrics of craniofacial form
P. E. Lestrel (1997)
Sexual dimorphism in the pelvic bones of the Tellem, a medieval Negro population from the Mali Republic.
E. Glanville (1967)
10.1007/BF02435592
From multivariate to qualitative measurement: Representation of shape
D. Read (1990)
The ideal form of the human dental arcade, with some prosthetic application.
Macconaill Ma (1949)
10.1002/ajpa.1330710105
Sexual dimorphism in mandibular growth of French-Canadian children 6 to 10 years of age.
P. Buschang (1986)
10.1177/00220345570360062901
The Shape of the Dental Arches
J. Scott (1957)
The search for biological correlates of behavioral sex differences in humans
D. P. Waber (1985)
Genesis of sexual dimorphism in man: from chromosomes to pubertal hormones
O. Butenandt (1985)
Size and shape of the orbital outline: a multivariate comparison and analysis of intraspecific variation in four hominoid species
B. Jacobshagen (1986)



This paper is referenced by
10.1007/s00414-017-1625-3
Stability of upper face sexual dimorphism in central European populations (Czech Republic) during the modern age
Š. Bejdová (2017)
10.1002/ajpa.23300
The characteristic mid-shaft cross-sectional shape of the ulna in Jomon hunter-gatherers.
Yasuo Hagihara (2017)
10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.06.009
The utility of elliptical Fourier analysis for estimating ancestry and sex from lateral skull photographs.
Jodi M Caple (2018)
10.1142/9789814518413_0009
Assessment of Body Image Perception: A Preliminary Study using Elliptic Fourier Descriptors
Pete E. Lestrel (2013)
10.1007/978-3-030-39212-3_12
Geometric Morphometrics and the Shape of Microscopic Organisms
Ecaterina Fodor (2020)
10.1002/ajpa.22315
Technical note: Quantification of neurocranial shape variation using the shortest paths connecting pairs of anatomical landmarks.
Yusuke Morita (2013)
10.1002/ajpa.22362
Loss of molar occlusion and mandibular morphology in adults in an ancient human population consuming a coarse diet.
Simon Mays (2013)
10.1142/9789814704199_0016
A Quantitative Analysis of Whole Body Outlines: Fourier Descriptors
Pete E. Lestrel (2015)
Document Title: Improving Sex Estimation from Crania using 3- dimensional CT Scans
R. Jantz (2013)
10.1016/j.jchb.2013.05.001
Mandibular shape analysis in fossil hominins: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.
P. Lestrel (2013)
10.1142/9789814518413_0008
Mandibular Shape Analysis of Plio-Pleistocene Hominins: Fourier Descriptors in NORMA LATERALIS
Pete E. Lestrel (2013)
10.1007/s00414-017-1555-0
Elliptical Fourier analysis: fundamentals, applications, and value for forensic anthropology
Jodi M Caple (2017)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar