Please confirm you are human (Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search
New Treatment Options For Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
G. Middleton, P. Ghaneh, Eithne Costello, W. Greenhalf, J. Neoptolemos
Published 2008 · Medicine
Save to my Library
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Pancreatic cancer has a very high mortality rate and affects approximately 230,000 individuals worldwide. Gemcitabine has become established as the standard therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer; however, the survival advantage is small. Adjuvant chemotherapy using either 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine is now established in pancreatic cancer as an alternative therapy. Combinations of gemcitabine with either platin agents or capecitabine may be advantageous. Anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF agents have been unsuccessful but multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors are under investigation. Of the increasing number of immunological agents, the GV1001 antitelomerase vaccine holds some interest. Targeted agents against important mitogenic pathways, including MEK/ERK, Src, PI3K/Akt, mTOR, Hedgehog and NF-κB, as well as agents targeting histone deacetylase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, heat shock protein 90 and other agents such as β-lapachone, hold considerable interest for further development. However, the probability of individual success is low.
This paper references
Synergy between chemotherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of established murine solid tumors.
A. Nowak (2003)
Targeting Heat Shock Protein 90 in Pancreatic Cancer Impairs Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Receptor Signaling, Disrupts an Interleukin-6/Signal-Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3/Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Autocrine Loop, and Reduces Orthotopic Tumor Growth
S. Lang (2007)
Phase II study of curcumin and gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer
R. Epelbaum (2008)
Telomerase peptide vaccination of patients with non-resectable pancreatic cancer: a dose escalating phase I/II study
S. Bernhardt (2006)
Blockade of hedgehog signaling inhibits pancreatic cancer invasion and metastases: a new paradigm for combination therapy in solid cancers.
G. Feldmann (2007)
CONKO-001: Final results of the randomized, prospective, multicenter phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine versus observation in patients with resected pancreatic cancer (PC)
P. Neuhaus (2008)
ACOSOG Z05031: Report on a multicenter, phase II trial for adjuvant therapy of resected pancreatic cancer using cisplatin, 5- FU, and alpha-interferon
V. Picozzi (2008)
The promise of cancer vaccines
E. Gilboa (2004)
Phase II study of RAD001 in previously treated patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer
B. Wolpin (2008)
Gemcitabine (G) combined with gefitinib in patients with inoperable or metastatic pancreatic cancer. A phase II trial
G. Fountzilas (2007)
Fluorouracil vs gemcitabine chemotherapy before and after fluorouracil-based chemoradiation following resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a randomized controlled trial.
W. Regine (2008)
Immunotherapy and chemotherapy — a practical partnership
R. Lake (2005)
Select forms of tumor cell apoptosis induce dendritic cell maturation
S. Demaria (2005)
Cancer burden in the year 2000. The global picture.
D. Parkin (2001)
A phase II study of bevacizumab (BEV) plus erlotinib (ERL) in patients with gemcitabine (GEM)-refractory metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC)
A. Ko (2008)
Diversification of Neu differentiation factor and epidermal growth factor signaling by combinatorial receptor interactions.
R. Pinkas-Kramarski (1996)
Phase I study of the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of PTK787/ZK 222584 administered twice daily in patients with advanced cancer.
A. Thomas (2005)
Ras, PI(3)K and mTOR signalling controls tumour cell growth
R. Shaw (2006)
PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis.
R. Cao (2004)
Orally administered FTS (salirasib) inhibits human pancreatic tumor growth in nude mice
R. Haklai (2007)
GW572016, gemcitabine and GW572016, gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, a two-stage, phase I study for advanced pancreaticobiliary cancer.
H. Safran (2006)
Interleukin-2 signals during priming are required for secondary expansion of CD8+ memory T cells
M. Williams (2006)
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized phase III trial of gemcitabine (G) plus bevacizumab (B) versus gemcitabine plus placebo (P) in patients (pts) with advanced pancreatic cancer (PC): A preliminary analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB
H. Kindler (2007)
Pancreatic tumor cells with mutant K-ras suppress ERK activity by MEK-dependent induction of MAP kinase phosphatase-2.
M. Yip-Schneider (2001)
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by human EGF receptor 2/EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor protects cardiac cells
N. Spector (2007)
The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib fails to inhibit pancreatic cancer progression.
J. Chen (2006)
Phase II Trial of Curcumin in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
N. Dhillon (2008)
Discovery of a novel Raf kinase inhibitor.
J. Lyons (2001)
Biology and management of pancreatic cancer
P. Ghaneh (2008)
Meta-analyses of chemotherapy for locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer: results of secondary end points analyses
A. Sultana (2008)
A phase II trial of high-dose calcitriol and docetaxel in patients with untreated, incurable pancreatic adenocarcinoma
C. Lopez (2007)
Meta-analysis of randomised adjuvant therapy trials for pancreatic cancer
D. Stocken (2005)
Benefits of targeting both pericytes and endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature with kinase inhibitors.
G. Bergers (2003)
Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor, in combination with gemcitabine for advanced pancreatic cancer: a multicenter phase II Trial.
H. Xiong (2004)
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy for inoperable advanced pancreatic cancer.
D. Yip (2006)
Effects of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor OSI-774, Tarceva, on Downstream Signaling Pathways and Apoptosis in Human Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma1Supported by the National Cancer Institute of Canada and the Pat Myhal Fund for Pancreatic Cancer Research.1
Sylvia S. W. Ng (2002)
Phase III study of gemcitabine [G] plus cetuximab [C] versus gemcitabine in patients [pts] with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma [PC]: SWOG S0205 study
P. Philip (2007)
A randomized, double-blind, placebo (P) controlled, multicenter phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding bevacizumab (B) to erlotinib (E) and gemcitabine (G) in patients (pts) with metastatic pancreatic cancer
W. Vervenne (2008)
Nuclear factor-κB in cancer development and progression
M. Karin (2006)
Expression and activity of SRC regulate interleukin-8 expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells: implications for angiogenesis.
J. Trevino (2005)
Meta-analyses of chemotherapy for locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer.
A. Sultana (2007)
Capecitabine in carcinoma of the pancreas
D. Smith (2006)
A randomized trial of chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy after resection of pancreatic cancer.
J. Neoptolemos (2004)
Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor phosphorylation by STI571 (Gleevec) reduces growth and metastasis of human pancreatic carcinoma in an orthotopic nude mouse model.
R. Hwang (2003)
Integrated development of S-Trans,TransFarnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS, Salisarib) in pancreatic cancer
Mechanism of biological synergy between cellular Src and epidermal growth factor receptor.
D. Tice (1999)
Gemcitabine based combination chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer-indirect comparison
A. Sultana (2007)
A Phase I study of bortezomib plus irinotecan in patients with advanced solid tumors
David P. Ryan (2006)
Cardiotoxicity associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib
T. F. Chu (2007)
A phase II study of docetaxel in combination with ZD1839 (gefitinib) in previously treated patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer
L. Blaszkowsky (2007)
Inhibition of Src Tyrosine Kinase as Treatment for Human Pancreatic Cancer Growing Orthotopically in Nude Mice
Maksim Yezhelyev (2004)
Overexpression and activation of the tyrosine kinase Src in human pancreatic carcinoma.
M. Lutz (1998)
Effects of STI571 (gleevec) on pancreatic cancer cell growth
J. Li (2003)
A randomized phase III study of gemcitabine in combination with radiation therapy versus gemcitabine alone in patients with localized, unresectable pancreatic cancer: E4201
P. Loehrer (2008)
Control of T-cell-mediated immune response by HLA class I in human pancreatic carcinoma.
E. Ryschich (2005)
Phase II trial of oral S-1 combined with gemcitabine in metastatic pancreatic cancer
K. Nakamura (2006)
MEK Inhibition of Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells by U0126 and Its Effect in Combination with Sulindac
M. Yip-Schneider (2003)
A phase 2 study of ARQ 501 in combination with gemcitabine in adult patients with treatment naive, unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma
H. Khong (2007)
Gemcitabine plus capecitabine compared with gemcitabine alone in advanced pancreatic cancer: a randomized, multicenter, phase III trial of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research and the Central European Cooperative Oncology Group.
R. Herrmann (2007)
Antiangiogenic and antitumor activity of a novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD6474 in a metastatic human pancreatic tumor model
C. Conrad (2007)
STAT5b, a Mediator of Synergism between c-Src and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor*
M. Kloth (2003)
Phase II trial of bevacizumab plus gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
H. Kindler (2005)
A phase II trial of sunitinib (S) in previously-treated pancreas adenocarcinoma (PAC), CALGB 80603
E. O’Reilly (2008)
Targeting PDGF Signaling in Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts Controls Cervical Cancer in Mouse Model
R. Jain (2008)
Induction of Tumor Cell Apoptosis In Vivo Increases Tumor Antigen Cross-Presentation, Cross-Priming Rather than Cross-Tolerizing Host Tumor-Specific CD8 T Cells1
A. Nowak (2003)
A late phase II study of S-1 for metastatic pancreatic cancer
T. Okusaka (2007)
Cancer Statistics, 2008
A. Jemal (2008)
Activation of Raf-1 in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
D. Berger (1997)
p53 dependence of Fas induction and acute apoptosis in response to 5-fluorouracil-leucovorin in human colon carcinoma cell lines.
I. Peták (2000)
Adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer
K. Aung (1995)
Efficacy of gemcitabine plus axitinib compared with gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: an open-label randomised phase II study
J. Spano (2008)
orthotopic nude mouse model
C Rocken (2003)
Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomised controlled trial
J. Neoptolemos (2001)
Phase I trial of oral S-1 combined with gemcitabine in metastatic pancreatic cancer
K. Nakamura (2005)
In vivo antitumor effect of the mTOR inhibitor CCI‐779 and gemcitabine in xenograft models of human pancreatic cancer
D. Ito (2006)
Treatment of pancreatic cancer with two novel histone deacetylase inhibitors NVP-LAQ824 and NVP-LBH589
M. Wiedmann (2007)
Multiple targeted tyrosine kinase inhibition in the clinic: all for one or one for all?
M. D. de Jonge (2006)
Vitamin D signalling pathways in cancer: potential for anticancer therapeutics
Kristin K. Deeb (2007)
Phase I Trial of Sorafenib and Gemcitabine in Advanced Solid Tumors with an Expanded Cohort in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
L. Siu (2006)
A phase II trial of erlotinib in combination with gemcitabine and capecitabine in previously untreated metastatic/recurrent pancreatic cancer
Do-youn Oh (2008)
Nuclear Factor-κB, an Unappreciated Tumor Suppressor: Figure 1.
Fei Chen (2007)
AZD2171: a highly potent, orally bioavailable, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of cancer.
S. Wedge (2005)
A new approach to managing intraductal papillary mucinous pancreatic neoplasms
P. Ghaneh (2007)
Phase II trial of vatalinib in patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma who failed gemcitabine therapy
T. Dragovich (2008)
c-Src-mediated Phosphorylation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor on Tyr845 and Tyr1101 Is Associated with Modulation of Receptor Function*
J. Biscardi (1999)
LV5FU2-cisplatin followed by gemcitabine or the reverse sequence in metastatic pancreatic cancer: Preliminary results of a randomized phase III trial (FFCD 0301)
E. Mitry (2008)
Sorafenib (S) plus gemcitabine (G) for advanced pancreatic cancer (PC): A phase II trial of the University of Chicago Phase II Consortium
J. A. Wallace (2007)
Inhibition of SRC expression and activity inhibits tumor progression and metastasis of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells in an orthotopic nude mouse model.
J. Trevino (2006)
Inhibition of Src Tyrosine Kinase Impairs Inherent and Acquired Gemcitabine Resistance in Human Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells
M. Duxbury (2004)
Nonhomologous end joining is essential for cellular resistance to the novel antitumor agent, beta-lapachone.
Melissa S. Bentle (2007)
Effect of Flt3 ligand gene transfer in experimental pancreatic cancer
E. Ryschich (2006)
Final analysis of a randomized phase II study of bevacizumab (B) and gemcitabine (G) plus cetuximab (C) or erlotinib (E) in patients (pts) with advanced pancreatic cancer (PC)
H. Kindler (2008)
Potentiation of chemotherapeutics by the Hsp90 antagonist geldanamycin requires a steady serum condition
M. Burkitt (2007)
Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in the management of urologic malignancies
J. García (2008)
Randomized phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine versus S-1 in patients with resected pancreatic cancer: Japan Adjuvant Study Group of Pancreatic Cancer (JASPAC-01).
A. Maeda (2008)
N-(5-chloro-1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl)-7-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy]-5- (tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yloxy)quinazolin-4-amine, a novel, highly selective, orally available, dual-specific c-Src/Abl kinase inhibitor.
L. Hennequin (2006)
Bosutinib (SKI-606), a dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor: Preliminary results from a phase 1 study in patients with advanced malignant solid tumors
W. Messersmith (2007)
AZD6244 (ARRY-142886), a potent inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1/2 kinases: mechanism of action in vivo, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, and potential for combination in preclinical models
B. Davies (2007)
Cell injury releases endogenous adjuvants that stimulate cytotoxic T cell responses.
Y. Shi (2000)
Phase II trial of S-1 in combination with gemcitabine in chemo-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer
G. Lee (2008)
Enhanced erbB-3 expression in human pancreatic cancer correlates with tumor progression.
H. Friess (1995)
An update of a phase I/II study of the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor vatalanib and gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer
T. Kuo (2008)
Nuclear factor-κB maintains TRAIL resistance in human pancreatic cancer cells
Sanaz Khanbolooki (2006)
Adjuvant chemotherapy alone versus chemoradiation after curative resection for pancreatic cancer : feasibility results of a randomised EORTC/FFCD/GERCOR phase II/III study (40013/22012/0304)
J. V. Laethem (2008)
Molecular identification of a danger signal that alerts the immune system to dying cells
Y. Shi (2003)
Phase III trial comparing intensive induction chemoradiotherapy (60 Gy, infusional 5-FU and intermittent cisplatin) followed by maintenance gemcitabine with gemcitabine alone for locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. Definitive results of the 2000-01 FFCD/SFRO study.
B. Chauffert (2008)
Phase III randomized comparison of gemcitabine versus gemcitabine plus capecitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
D. Cunningham (2009)
A "catastrophic hypothesis" for pancreas cancer progression.
F. Real (2003)
Long-term Survival and Metastatic Pattern of Pancreatic and Periampullary Cancer After Adjuvant Chemoradiation or Observation: Long-term Results of EORTC Trial 40891
H. Smeenk (2007)
Clinical evidence does not support the use of adjuvant radiotherapy in pancreatic cancer
J. Neoptolemos (2008)
Biological Characterization of ARRY-142886 (AZD6244), a Potent, Highly Selective Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1/2 Inhibitor
T. Yeh (2007)
A randomized trial in patients with gemcitabine refractory pancreatic cancer. Final results of the CONKO 003 study
U. Pelzer (2008)
Christianity and Democracy: The Global Picture
P. Berger (2004)
J. Hardcastle (1993)
Role of erlotinib in the management of pancreatic cancer
N. Starling (2006)
Lack of elevated MAP kinase (Erk) activity in pancreatic carcinomas despite oncogenic K-ras expression.
M. Yip-Schneider (1999)
Adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine vs observation in patients undergoing curative-intent resection of pancreatic cancer: a randomized controlled trial.
H. Oettle (2007)
In vivo priming of two distinct antitumor effector populations: the role of MHC class I expression
H. Levitsky (1994)
Integrated development of s-trans, trans-farnesylthiosalicyclic acid (FTS, salirasib) in advanced pancreatic cancer.
D. Laheru (2009)
Cetuximab monotherapy and cetuximab plus irinotecan in irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer.
D. Cunningham (2004)
FAK and IGF-IR interact to provide survival signals in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.
W. Liu (2008)
Tissue Transglutaminase Regulates Focal Adhesion Kinase/AKT Activation by Modulating PTEN Expression in Pancreatic Cancer Cells
A. Verma (2008)
c-Src Regulates Constitutive and EGF-mediated VEGF Expression in Pancreatic Tumor Cells Through Activation of Phosphatidyl Inositol-3 Kinase and p38 MAPK
J. Summy (2005)
Restoring apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by targeting the nuclear factor-κb signaling pathway with the anti-epidermal growth factor antibody IMC-C225
Guido M. Sclabas (2003)
Systematic review, including meta-analyses, on the management of locally advanced pancreatic cancer using radiation/combined modality therapy
A. Sultana (2007)
Antitumor effects of ZD6474, a small molecule vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with additional activity against epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.
F. Ciardiello (2003)
Identification of Src-specific phosphorylation site on focal adhesion kinase: dissection of the role of Src SH2 and catalytic functions and their consequences for tumor cell behavior.
V. Brunton (2005)
Modulation of transcription by PARP-1: consequences in carcinogenesis and inflammation.
R. Aguilar-Quesada (2007)
Inhibition of TGF-beta with neutralizing antibodies prevents radiation-induced acceleration of metastatic cancer progression.
Swati Biswas (2007)
VEGF-targeted therapy: mechanisms of anti-tumour activity
L. Ellis (2008)
Multi-center phase II/III randomized controlled clinical trial using TNFerade combined with chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC)
M. Posner (2007)
Erlotinib plus gemcitabine compared with gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase III trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group.
M. Moore (2007)
Randomized phase III trial results of panitumumab, a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, in metastatic colorectal cancer.
T. Gibson (2006)
Meta-analysis of Randomised Adjuvant Therapy Trials for Pancreatic Cancer
P. Loehrer (2006)
Inhibition of FLT3 signaling targets DCs to ameliorate autoimmune disease.
K. Whartenby (2005)
This paper is referenced by
Epidermal growth factor induces HCCR expression via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells
Zekuan Xu (2009)
CXCL12–CXCR4 signalling axis confers gemcitabine resistance to pancreatic cancer cells: a novel target for therapy
S. Singh (2010)
Therapeutic strategies for targeting telomerase in cancer
X. Chen (2019)
Vaccination in gastrointestinal cancer
C. Staff (2014)
Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors
P. Ghaneh (2012)
Embigin is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and regulates cell motility through epithelial to mesenchymal transition via the TGF‐β pathway
Dawoon E Jung (2016)
Pancreatic Carcinoma: Therapeutic Future Prospects
Åke Andrén-Sandberg (2010)
The novel vaccine peptide GV1001 effectively blocks β-amyloid toxicity by mimicking the extra-telomeric functions of human telomerase reverse transcriptase
Hyun-Hee Park (2014)
A telomerase-derived peptide vaccine inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in a rat model.
Eun Ji Lee (2019)
Novel anticancer therapeutics targeting telomerase.
M. Ruden (2013)
New biomarkers and targets in pancreatic cancer and their application to treatment
Eithne Costello (2012)
Protective effects of GV1001 on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury
J. Chang (2017)
The Development of Pharmacodynamic Endpoint Models for Evaluation of Therapeutics in Pancreatic Cancer
A. Baker (2010)
The chemotherapeutic effects of lapacho tree extract: Î²-lapachone
Hsiu-Ni Kung (2014)
Proteomic Analysis of Blood and Pancreatic Juice
Mark Aspinall-O’Dea (2010)
Nicotine, IFN-γ and retinoic acid mediated induction of MUC4 in pancreatic cancer requires E2F1 and STAT-1 transcription factors and utilize different signaling cascades
Sateesh S. Kunigal (2011)
Fabrication of gold nanoparticles for targeted therapy in pancreatic cancer.
C. Patra (2010)
Resveratrol inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of pancreatic cancer cells via suppression of the PI-3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway.
W. Li (2013)
Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines
Sanjay Srivatsan (2014)
Stromal Carcinoma Associated Fibroblasts Promote Drug Resistance of Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Modulation of ROS via CXCR4/CXCL12 Signaling
Brij B. Patel (2015)
GV1001 is a novel vaccine peptide derived from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) corresponding to amino acids 611‐626 of hTERT (6). It is a 16‐amino acid peptide with the following sequence; Glu‐Ala‐Arg‐Pro‐Ala‐ Leu‐Leu‐Thr‐Ser‐Arg‐Leu‐Arg‐Phe‐Ile‐Pro‐Lys (7). Since hTERT is a well‐
Ji-Eun Chang (2017)
Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptor expression and toxin susceptibility of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas of differing origin and differentiation
Wiebke Storck (2012)
KL1333, a derivative of β-lapachone, protects against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in mouse cochlear cultures.
H. Lee (2020)
Inhibition of cysteine peptidase activity in ascitic fluid in pancreatic cancer patients.
A. Agrawal (2010)
Controlled Drug Release and Cytotoxicity Studies of Beta-Lapachone and Doxorubicin Loaded into Cyclodextrins Attached to a Polyethyleneimine Matrix
A. Kowalczyk (2020)
Development of Novel Therapeutic Response Biomarkers
Nils Elander (2017)
Potential repositioning of GV 1001 as a therapeutic agent for testosterone ‐ induced benign prostatic hyperplasia
K. S. Kim (2018)
Alisol B acetate induces apoptosis of SGC7901 cells via mitochondrial and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases/Akt signaling pathways.
Yong-hong Xu (2009)