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Non-functioning Pituitary Adenomas: Clinical Feature, Laboratorial And Imaging Assessment, Therapeutic Management And Outcome

Maria Licia Calado de Aguiar Ribeiro Cury, Juliana Coutinho Fernandes, Hélio Rubens Machado, Lucila Leico Elias, Ayrton Custódio Moreira, Margaret de Castro

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OBJECTIVE: This study is an updated review of a Southeast Brazilian experience NFPA, emphasizing clinical features, laboratorial and imaging assessment, therapeutic management and outcome. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective study, in which 104 patients with NFPA were evaluated by the same team of endocrinologists and neurosurgeon. Patients underwent biochemical evaluation, radiological studies and visual field assessment. RESULTS: Hypopituitarism and neuro-ophthalmological defects were observed in 89%. We observed GH deficiency (81.4%), hypogonadism (63.3%), adrenal hypofunction (59.5%), hypothyroidism (20.4%), high (38.5%) and low (16.7%) prolactin levels. Preoperative imaging classified 93% of the tumors as macroadenomas. Extra-sellar expansion was observed in 83.8%. Varying degrees of visual disturbance were observed in 74%. Primary treatment was transsphenoidal surgery (75%). Clinical control was achieved with one surgery in 37.5 % of patients. The majority of patients needed a second therapeutic approach, radiotherapy or other surgeries. Immunohistochemistry resulted negative for pituitary hormones in 43%. Improvement of neuro-ophthalmological symptoms was observed in 61% of the patients after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm elevated prevalence of mass effect and hypopituitarism in patients harboring NFPA. Recurrence due to invasion or incomplete resection of the tumor is quite common, which frequently leads to a second therapeutic option.