Innate And Adaptive Immunity In Teleost Fish: A Review
The immune system of fish is very similar to vertebrates, although there are some important differences. Fish are free-living organisms from the embryonic stage of life in their aquatic environment. They have mechanisms to protect themselves from a wide variety of microorganisms. Consequently, fish rely on their innate immune system for an extended period of time, beginning at the early stages of embryogenesis. The components of the innate immune response are divided into physical, cellular and humoral factors and include humoral and cellular receptor molecules that are soluble in plasma and other body fluids. The lymphoid organs found in fish include the thymus, spleen and kidney. Immunoglobulins are the principal components of the immune response against pathogenic organisms. Immunomodulatory products, including nucleotides, glucans and probiotics, are increasingly used in aquaculture production. The use of these products reduces the need for therapeutic treatments, enhances the effects of vaccines and, in turn, improves the indicators of production. The aim of this review is to provide a review of the immune system in fish, including the ontogeny, mechanisms of unspecific and acquired immunity and the action of some immunomodulators.