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Surfaces For Functional And Patterned Immobilization Of Proteins

P. Stegmaier
Published 2007 · Chemistry

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Functional and patterned immobilization of proteins onto solid substrates is an important issue in biotechnological processes involving protein purification or detection, or in the study of protein-protein interactions. This thesis presents a new strategy to functional immobilize proteins in selected microregions of a substrate based on photosensitive surface layers containing caged ligands and protein repellent EG chains. Special effort has been paid to the development of surface compositions and architectures that retain protein function in the surface mobilized state. In the first part of the thesis, branched silanes containing protein repellent OEG arms terminated with one inert -OMe group and one photocleavable, caged amino functionality were synthesized. Silica surfaces were modified with these molecules and the properties of the surface layers were characterized. According to the ellipsometric data, submonolayers with amino surface densities lower than in SAMs of thiols were obtained after optimization of the conditions for the surface reaction. The photolytic properties of the surfaces were analyzed. Irradiation of the surface at 355 nm cleaved the photoremovable cage and liberated the amino functionalities. These were then used to immobilize protein targets from solution after appropriate biofunctionalization. Reflectance Interference Spectroscopy (RIFS) was used to monitor and quantify protein binding. Low non-specific adsorption of proteins onto the surfaces as a consequence of the presence of EG chains was proven. Binding efficiencies were shown to be better than binding onto surface layers containing linear and shorter EG chains. For surface layers with similar architectures (either linear or branched) binding results correlate with the surface density of ligands. In the second part, silanes possessing different photocleavable groups able to be cleaved individually by using light of different wavelengths (NVoc and DEACM) were synthesized. UV measurements revealed that DEACM can be easily cleaved off upon UV irradiation at 412 nm, without damaging the NVoc group. The NVoc group can be removed at 345 nm. Surface layers containing a mixture of both groups were prepared and used for coupling two different fluorescent dyes to selected microregions of a surface. The expected fluorescence pattern was observed, confirming the possibility of generating complex chemical patterns by using different cages that can be independently addressed. In a last part of the thesis, magnetite nanoparticles were modified with mixed silane layers containing amino and OH/ OMe terminal groups in different molar ratios and connected to the surface by EG spacers with different lengths. The influence of the amine density and accessibility on the protein loading capacity of the nanoparticles has been analyzed. The optimum silane surface composition for maximum protein loading was identified. Die funktionale und ortsselektive Immobilisierung von Proteinen auf festen Oberflachen ist ein wichtiger Aspekt in biotechnologischen Prozessen, der bei der Reinigung von Proteinen, ihrem Nachweis und der Untersuchung von Protein-Protein-Wechselwirkungen eine Rolle spielt. In der vorliegenden Dissertation wurde eine neue Strategie zur funktionalen Immobilisierung von Proteinen in definierten Mikroregionen auf Substraten entwickelt. Diese Methode basiert auf der Herstellung von photosensitiven Oberflachenschichten, in denen geschutzte Funktionalitaten und proteinabweisende Ethylenglykol (EG) Ketten eingebaut sind. Ein besonderes Augenmerk wurde dabei auf die Zusammensetzung und Gestaltung der Oberflachenschicht gelegt, um die Funktion des Proteins auch nach der Anbindung an die Oberflache zu bewahren. Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wurden Silane synthetisiert, die eine aus protein-abweisenden TEG Armen aufgebaute verzweigte Struktur aufweisen, welche eine inerte Methoxygruppe an einem Ende und eine durch eine photolabile NVoc-Gruppe geschutzte Aminofunktionalitat am anderen Ende tragt. Siliziumdioxid-Oberflachen wurden mit diesen Silanen modifiziert und die erhaltenen Oberflachenschichten charakterisiert. Auf modifizierten Quarz-Substraten wurde die Abspaltung der photolabilen NVoc-Schutzgruppe durch Bestrahlung im Absorptionsmaximum (bei 355 nm) untersucht. Die bei der Photolyse freigesetzten Aminogruppen wurden nach geeigneter Biofunktionalisierung in der Immobilisierung von Proteinen aus Losungen getestet. Die selektive Immobilisierung wurde mithilfe von reflektometrischer Interferenzspektroskopie (RIFS) verfolgt und quantifiziert. Aufgrund der vorhandenen OEG Ketten war die unspezifische Adsorption vernachlassigbar klein. Schichten aus verzweigten Silanen wiesen eine hohere Bindungsfahigkeit als die aus linearen und kurzeren EG Ketten aufgebauten Schichten auf. Fur Schichten ahnlicher Gestalt (sowohl von linearen als auch von verzweigten Silanen) konnte ein Zusammenhang zwischen Bindungsfahigkeit und der Dichte funktioneller Gruppen auf der Oberflache gefunden werden. In einem zweiten Teil wurden Silane mit zwei verschiedenen photosensitiven Gruppen (NVoc und DEACM) synthetisiert, die durch Bestrahlung bei unterschiedlicher Wellenlange individuell abgespalten werden konnen. Spektroskopische Untersuchungen der Photolyse beider photolabilen Gruppen zeigten, dass DEACM durch Bestrahlung bei 412 nm fast vollstandig abgespalten wird, wahrend NVoc nur wenig beeindrachtigt wird. Eine Abspaltung von NVoc kann bei 345 nm erfolgen. Gemischte Schichten beider Silane wurden hergestellt und in einem zweistufigen Bestrahlungsprozes nacheinander orts-selektiv entschutzt und mit zwei verschiedenen Fluoreszenfarbstoffen gekuppelt. Das erhaltene Fluoreszenz-Muster bestatigt die Moglichkeit, mit diesen beiden Schutzgruppen gezielt chemisch komplex strukturierte Oberflachen zu erzeugen. Im dritten Teil der Arbeit wurden magnetische Nanopartikel durch Co-Adsorption von verschiedenen Amin- und OH/ OMe-terminierten Silanen mit unterschiedlich langen EG Armen modifiziert. Eine Untersuchung der funktionalen Immobilisierung von Proteinen an diese gemischten Schichten erfolgte im Hinblick auf den Einfluss der Amingruppendichte sowie der Zuganglichkeit dieser funktionellen Gruppen. Somit konnte eine optimale Oberflachenzusammensetzung mit maximaler Bindungsfahigkeit fur Proteine ermittelt werden.
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