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Thérapie EMDR Et Psycho-oncologie : Un Pont Entre Le Corps Et L'esprit

E. Faretta, C. Civilotti
Published 2017 ·

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Parmi les maladies potentiellement mortelles, le cancer est l'une des plus traumatisantes et des plus génératrices de détresse. Il impacte le sens même de l'identité de l'individu et perturbe chez lui des caractéristiques essentielles, en rapport direct avec la conscience de soi et le caractère unique de la personne. Il attaque l'intégrité physique des patients, amenant la question de la mort au premier plan, et peut mettre en cause directement leur sentiment d'appartenance aux micro- et macro-systèmes sociaux autour d'eux. Cet article souligne l'importance de comprendre que souffrance psychologique et douleur physique sont étroitement interconnectées et, dans le contexte de la psycho-oncologie, propose une perspective clinique basée sur l'approche de désensibilisation et de retraitement par les mouvements oculaires (EMDR), approche pour laquelle l'événement qu'est le cancer est inscrit dans l'histoire de vie du patient. L'EMDR est une approche thérapeutique fondée sur le modèle du traitement adaptatif de l'information (TAI). Le modèle TAI postule que la psychopathologie apparaît quand des expériences non traitées sont enregistrées dans leur propre réseau neuronal et se trouvent dans l'impossibilité de se connecter à d'autres réseaux plus adaptatifs. Dans cette perspective, on suppose que le noyau de la souffrance clinique est enchâssé dans ces souvenirs qui demeurent en suspens de façon dysfonctionnelle. Selon des articles scientifiques récents que nous présentons dans cet article, il semble que les traumas du passé et les traumas liés au cancer entretiennent un cercle vicieux entre la santé psychologique et physique de l'individu, et l'objectif de la thérapie EMDR est de briser ce cercle. De récentes recherches scientifiques avancent l'hypothèse que le thérapie EMDR est efficace au niveau psychologique comme au niveau physique. Cependant, à cause de l'hétérogénéité générale des protocoles de recherche, les résultats rapportés dans cet article soulignent la nécessité de mener d'autres recherches contrôlées afin de permettre une analyse plus complète.
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