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Role Of The Retinoid X Receptors In Skeletal Muscle Development
Published 2011 · Biology
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Pluripotent stem cells have the capacity to develop into different cell lineages and can be manipulated into certain cell types through the use of small molecule inducers. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling through retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) has the ability to direct lineage determination but has yielded disappointing results in promoting skeletal myogenesis in embryonic stem (ES) cells. RXR is crucial in embryonic development although it is generally considered to act as a silent partner for other nuclear receptors such as RAR. Our findings demonstrate that rexinoid specific signaling enhances skeletal myogenesis and requires β-catenin but not RAR. Moreover, RXR signalling in mouse ES cells can efficiently enhance skeletal myogenesis and closely recapitulates sequential events observed in vivo. Since ES cells closely represent the properties of the developing embryo, efficiently generating skeletal muscle provides a means to further scrutinize signaling pathways in myogenic development in view of developing therapies for muscle related diseases.
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