Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Neurologic Uses Of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A

J. Ney, K. Joseph
Published 2007 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
This article reviews the current and most neurologic uses of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A), beginning with relevant historical data, neurochemical mechanism at the neuromuscular junction. Current commercial preparations of BoNT-A are reviewed, as are immunologic issues relating to secondary failure of BoNT-A therapy. Clinical uses are summarized with an emphasis on controlled clinical trials (as appropriate), including facial movement disorders, focal neck and limb dystonias, spasticity, hypersecretory syndromes, and pain.
This paper references
[Treatment of hemifacial spasm with botulinum toxin].
M. Tanaka (1993)
10.1016/J.APMR.2003.10.015
Dose-dependent response to intramuscular botulinum toxin type A for upper-limb spasticity in patients after a stroke.
M. Childers (2004)
10.1007/s10072-005-0378-9
A randomised, double-blind, dose-ranging study to evaluate efficacy and safety of three doses of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) for the treatment of spastic foot
F. Mancini (2005)
Botulinum toxin injection for spasmodic torticollis: increased magnitude of benefi
CL Comella (1992)
Drooling. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
D Lal (2006)
10.1111/j.1533-2500.2004.04011.x
Botulinum Neurotoxins: Origins and Basic Mechanisms of Action
S. Silberstein (2004)
10.1093/BRAIN/121.5.977
The corticomotor representation of upper limb muscles in writer's cramp and changes following botulinum toxin injection.
M. Byrnes (1998)
Botulinum toxin therapy for pain and infl
GE Borodic (2001)
10.1007/s10350-004-7286-6
Botulinum Toxin (Botox®) Reduces Pain After Hemorrhoidectomy
J. Davies (2003)
10.1097/01.ajp.0000174267.06993.3f
Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain With Successive Injections of Botulinum Toxin A Over 6 Months: A Prospective Trial of 60 Patients
J. Ney (2006)
10.1542/peds.2003-1104-L
Effect of Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Drooling: A Controlled Clinical Trial
P. Jongerius (2004)
10.1002/14651858.CD004900.PUB2
Botulinum toxin type A therapy for blepharospasm.
J. Costa (2005)
Cervical Dystonia Severity Scale (CDSS) reliability study
A Brashear (1998)
10.1016/j.sder.2008.03.003
Update on botulinum toxin.
T. Flynn (2007)
THE CONTROL OF MUSCLES.
Bottomley Ah (1964)
10.1097/00002508-200211001-00002
Therapeutic Use of Botulinum Toxins: Background and History
P. Setler (2002)
10.1353/pbm.1997.0032
Botulinum Toxin: The Story of Its Development for the Treatment of Human Disease
E. Schantz (1997)
10.1185/030079904125003962
Safety of botulinum toxin type A: a systematic review and meta-analysis
M. Naumann (2004)
10.1212/WNL.45.9.1743
Response and immunoresistance to botulinum toxin injections
J. Jankovic (1995)
Clinical assessments of patients with cervical dystonia
ES Consky (1994)
10.1016/0002-9394(85)90228-4
Treatment of blepharospasm with botulinum toxin.
E. A. Tsoy (1985)
10.1016/J.NEURO.2005.01.017
Review of a proposed mechanism for the antinociceptive action of botulinum toxin type A.
K. Aoki (2005)
10.1002/MDS.870030107
Analysis of open‐label trials in torsion dystonia using high dosages of anticholinergics and other drugs
P. Greene (1988)
10.1002/MUS.880150303
In vitro microelectrode study of neuromuscular transmission in a case of botulism
R. Maselli (1992)
Dysport. Dermatol Clin
Ac Markey (2004)
10.1007/s10194-003-0049-2
Botulinum toxin type A in prophylactic treatment of migraine headaches: a preliminary study
N. Barrientos (2003)
Kinetic studies on the interaction between botulinum toxin type A and the cholinergic neuromuscular junction.
L. Simpson (1980)
10.1007/BF02850051
Why the most potent toxin may heal anal fissure
M. Madaliński (2006)
The status of botulism as a wokd health problem
Kf Meyer (1956)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01438.x
Pharmacology of botulinum toxin: differences between type A preparations
R. Rosales (2006)
10.1542/peds.2006-2425
Upper-Limb Botulinum Toxin A Injection and Occupational Therapy in Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Identified From a Population Register: A Single-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial
R. Russo (2007)
10.1002/14651858.CD001408
Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of lower limb spasticity in cerebral palsy.
R. A. Ade-Hall (2000)
10.1136/bmj.297.6648.616
Botulinum toxin treatment of spasmodic torticollis.
R. Stell (1988)
Dysport ® (botulinum toxin type A) package insert
(2005)
10.1016/S0168-0102(99)00006-1
Contribution of group III and IV muscle afferents to multisensorial spinal motor control in cats
E. Schomburg (1999)
Neurologic uses of botulinum neurotoxin type A
10.1016/j.otohns.2005.09.008
Botulinum Toxin A and B: A Comparative Dosing Study for Spasmodic Dysphonia
A. Blitzer (2005)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01441.x
Botulinum toxin in blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia: comparing different botulinum toxin preparations
R. Bhidayasiri (2006)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01648.x
The structure and mode of action of different botulinum toxins
J. O. Dolly (2006)
10.1002/MDS.870120627
DYSBOT: A single‐blind, randomized parallel study to determine whether any differences can be detected in the efficacy and tolerability of two formulations of botulinum toxin type A—Dysport and Botox—assuming a ratio of 4:1
C. Sampaio (1997)
Meige syndrome: primary and secondary forms.
E. Tolosa (1988)
10.1212/WNL.61.9.1279
A randomized trial of botulinum toxin A for treatment of drooling
A. Lipp (2003)
10.1097/01241398-199805000-00006
Botulinum toxin A compared with stretching casts in the treatment of spastic equinus: a randomised prospective trial.
I. Corry (1998)
10.1097/01.WNF.0000240951.18821.50
Neurophysiological Double-Blind Trial of a Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Free of Complexing Proteins
K. Wohlfarth (2007)
10.1097/00002508-200211001-00007
A Focused Review of the Use of Botulinum Toxins for Low Back Pain
Mark Difazio (2002)
10.1136/jnnp.64.1.6
A double blind, randomised, parallel group study to investigate the dose equivalence of Dysport® and Botox®in the treatment of cervical dystonia
T. Odergren (1998)
Botulinum toxin type A and short-term electrical stimulation in the treatment of upper limb fl exor spasticity after stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
S Hesse (1998)
Clinical assessments of patients with cervical dystonia Therapy with botulinum toxin
Es Consky (1994)
10.1080/00016489.2003.11720744
Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A on Nasal Symptoms in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial
M. Ünal (2003)
10.1016/J.PARKRELDIS.2005.07.004
Adult-onset primary focal foot dystonia.
C. Singer (2006)
10.1002/MDS.870090106
Histologic assessment of dose‐related diffusion and muscle fiber response after therapeutic botulinum a toxin injections
G. Borodic (1994)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01447.x
Botulinum toxin treatment of sialorrhea: comparing different therapeutic preparations
E. Tan (2006)
New formulation of BOTOX. Complete antibody-induced therapy failure in hemifacial spasm.
D. Dressler (2004)
10.1007/s004150170028
Efficacy and safety of a standardised 500 unit dose of Dysport® (Clostridium botulinum toxin type A haemaglutinin complex) in a heterogeneous cervical dystonia population: results of a prospective, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study
J. Wissel (2001)
Accessed August 10th
Dysport (2007)
10.1097/00001577-199801020-00013
Botulinum Toxin A in the Hemiplegic Upper Limb: A Double‐blind Trial
L. Arens (1997)
10.1002/jnr.21171
The janus faces of botulinum neurotoxin: Sensational medicine and deadly biological weapon
Shona L. Osborne (2007)
10.1046/j.1440-1754.1999.00330.x
Botulinum toxin A versus fixed cast stretching for dynamic calf tightness in cerebral palsy
P. Flett (1999)
10.1146/ANNUREV.NEURO.26.041002.131022
Pain mechanisms: labeled lines versus convergence in central processing.
A. Craig (2003)
10.1097/01.WNF.0000236771.77021.3C
A Double-blind, Randomized, Crossover Study of Prosigne Versus Botox in Patients With Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm
C. Rieder (2007)
10.1136/bjo.86.1.43
Botulinum toxin treatment for hyperlacrimation secondary to aberrant regenerated seventh nerve palsy or salivary gland transplantation
D. J. Keegan (2002)
Comparison of effi
J Jankovic (2003)
Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: a 52-week multicenter double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of effi cacy and safety
NJ Lowe (2007)
Classics in infectious diseases. A new anaerobic bacillus and its relation to botulism. E. van Ermengem. Originally published as "Ueber einen neuen anaëroben Bacillus und seine Beziehungen zum Botulismus" in Zeitschrift für Hygiene und Infektionskrankheiten 26: 1-56, 1897.
E. van Ermengem (1979)
An electron microscopic study of the changes induced by botulinum toxin in the motor end - plates of slow and fast skeletal muscle fi bers of the mouse
LW Duchen (1971)
10.1097/01.iio.0000167238.26526.a8
Benign Essential Blepharospasm
J. McCann (2005)
10.1212/WNL.56.10.1290
Botulinum toxin A and chronic low back pain
L. Foster (2001)
10.1016/0378-4274(95)94630-Y
The mechanism of action of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins.
C. Montecucco (1996)
10.1002/mds.20794
Adult‐onset primary lower limb dystonia
S. Schneider (2006)
jaw muscle spindles
PJ Flett (1999)
Accessed August 10th URL: http://www.botoxmedical Patients' perception of stopping or continuing treatment of cervical dystonia with botulinum toxin type A
Botox ® Portal Websitecom Brashear (2000)
10.1016/J.PEDIATRNEUROL.2005.05.001
Pharmacotherapy of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy.
A. Verrotti (2006)
10.1016/J.MEHY.2006.01.012
Topical botulinum toxin to treat hyperhidrosis? No sweat!
E. Lim (2006)
10.1002/MDS.870030409
Systemic toxicity of botulinum toxin by intramuscular injection in the monkey
A. B. Scott (1988)
10.1093/CLINIDS/1.4.701
A New Anaerobic Bacillus and Its Relation to Botulism
E. V. Ermengem (1979)
10.1067/MPD.2000.108393
An evaluation of botulinum-A toxin injections to improve upper extremity function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
D. Fehlings (2000)
10.1046/j.1526-4610.2000.00066.x
Botulinum Toxin Type A as a Migraine Preventive Treatment
S. Silberstein (2000)
10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.12.004
Anti-allodynic efficacy of botulinum neurotoxin A in a model of neuropathic pain
S. Luvisetto (2007)
Comparison of Botox with a Chinese type A botulinum toxin.
X. Tang (2000)
An evaluation of botulinum-A
D Fehlings (2000)
10.1111/j.1468-2982.2007.01290_2.x
Botulinum Toxin in Headache Treatment: The End of The Road?: Reply
S. Evers (2007)
10.1212/WNL.50.6.1624
Mouse bioassay versus Western blot assay for botulinurn toxin antibodies Correlation with clinical response
P. Hanna (1998)
10.3171/JNS.2003.98.2.0291
Long-term intrathecal baclofen therapy for severe spasticity of cerebral origin.
A. Albright (2003)
10.1001/ARCHOPHT.1985.01050030043017
Botulinum A toxin injection as a treatment for blepharospasm.
A. Scott (1985)
10.1111/J.1524-4725.2006.32331.X
A double-blind, randomized, comparative study of two type A botulinum toxins in the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis.
Sérgio Talarico-Filho (2007)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01439.x
Immunological aspects of Botox®, Dysport® and MyoblocTM/NeuroBloc®
D. Dressler (2006)
10.1191/026921598668275996
Botulinum toxin type A and short-term electrical stimulation in the treatment of upper limb flexor spasticity after stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
S. Hesse (1998)
10.1016/J.JAAD.2007.01.009
Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: a 52-week multicenter double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety.
N. Lowe (2007)
10.1097/WNR.0b013e32801b3cbb
BoNT/E prevents seizure-induced activation of caspase 3 in the rat hippocampus
I. Manno (2007)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01440.x
Treatment of cervical dystonia with botulinum toxins
C. Comella (2008)
10.1159/000064620
Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm: A Long-Term Follow-Up of 1,169 Consecutive Cases
S. Chung (2001)
Meige syndrome: primary
botulinum toxin. Chin J Med (2006)
An electron microscopic study of the changes induced by botulinum toxin in the motor end-plates of slow and fast skeletal muscle
LW Duchen (1971)
Upper-limb botulinum toxin
Ney (2007)
Anti-allodynic effi cacy of botulinum neurotoxin A in a model of neuropathic pain
S Luvisetto (2007)
10.1212/01.WNL.0000055087.96356.BB
Comparison of efficacy and immunogenicity of original versus current botulinum toxin in cervical dystonia
J. Jankovic (2003)
The guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of spasticity.
I. Dones (2006)
10.1016/J.SDER.2006.06.003
Update on botulinum toxin.
T. Flynn (2006)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1123654
SV2 Is the Protein Receptor for Botulinum Neurotoxin A
M. Dong (2006)
10.1111/j.1469-8749.1997.tb07408.x
Botulinum toxin A in the hemiplegia upper limb: a double‐blind trial
I. S. Corry (1997)
10.3109/00016489309135834
Botulinum A toxin effects on rat jaw muscle spindles.
G. Filippi (1993)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(1997)6+<208::AID-MUS15>3.0.CO;2-1
Dosing, administration, and a treatment algorithm for use of botulinum toxin A for adult‐onset spasticity
M. Brin (1997)
10.1111/j.1469-8749.2002.tb00268.x
Botulinum toxin treatment of spasticity in diplegic cerebral palsy: a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, dose‐ranging study
R. Baker (2002)
The status of botulism as a wokd health problem
Meyer KF. (1956)
10.1016/S0300-9084(00)01169-X
Identification of the characteristics that underlie botulinum toxin potency: implications for designing novel drugs.
L. Simpson (2000)
10.2165/00044011-200626090-00004
Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Relief of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
C. Tsai (2006)
The control of muscle tone , refl exes , and movement : Robert Wartenberg Lecture
AM Lang (2003)
10.1097/01241398-199405000-00005
Management of spasticity in cerebral palsy with botulinum-A toxin: report of a preliminary, randomized, double-blind trial.
L. Koman (1994)
10.1517/13543784.10.8.1531
Botulinum toxin therapy for pain and inflammatory disorders: mechanisms and therapeutic effects
G. Borodic (2001)
10.1097/01.DCR.0000074720.20187.78
Botulinum Toxin (Botox®) Reduces Pain After Hemorrhoidectomy: Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized Study
J. Davies (2003)
10.1097/00063110-200510000-00011
Clostridium botulinum: an increasing complication of heroin misuse
J. Cooper (2005)
10.1016/S0140-6736(86)92070-2
DOUBLE-BLIND STUDY OF BOTULINUM TOXIN IN SPASMODIC TORTICOLLIS
J. C. Tsui (1986)
10.1113/EXPPHYSIOL.1968.SP001948
The effects of botulinum toxin on the pattern of innervation of skeletal muscle in the mouse.
L. Duchen (1968)
10.1097/00002508-200009001-00006
Pain Mechanisms and Management: A Central Perspective
R. Mannion (2000)
Effect of botulinum toxin A on nasal symptoms in allergic rhinitis: a double blind, placebo controlled trial
M Unal (2003)
10.1097/00002508-200211001-00005
Review of the FDA‐Approved Uses of Botulinum Toxins, Including Data Suggesting Efficacy in Pain Reduction
M. Lew (2002)
10.1212/WNL.53.9.2102
Botulinum toxin A in patients with oromandibular dystonia
E. Tan (1999)
10.1016/0168-1605(90)90060-I
Clostridium botulinum toxins.
A. H. Hauschild (1990)
10.1007/s10072-003-0201-4
Treatment of phonic tics in patients with Tourette’s syndrome using botulinum toxin type A
M. Porta (2003)
10.1002/1531-8257(200001)15:1<150::AID-MDS1024>3.0.CO;2-X
Patients' perception of stopping or continuing treatment of cervical dystonia with botulinum toxin type A
A. Brashear (2000)
10.1002/1531-8257(200009)15:5<973::AID-MDS1031>3.0.CO;2-X
Botulinum toxin antibody testing: Comparison between the mouse protection assay and the mouse lethality assay
D. Dressler (2000)
10.1002/mds.10420
Double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of drooling in parkinsonism
F. Mancini (2003)
10.1111/J.1524-4725.2006.32335.X
Topically applied botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: results of a randomized, blinded, vehicle-controlled study.
R. Glogau (2007)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01446.x
Botulinum toxin therapy of writer's cramp
C. P. Das (2006)
10.1111/j.1528-1167.2006.00930.x
Reduction of EEG Myogenic Artifact with Botulinum Toxin during Video‐EEG Monitoring
A. Grant (2007)
The control of muscle
JW Lance (1980)
Effi cacy of botulinum toxin type a in the relief of Carpal tunnel syndrome: a preliminary experience
CP Tsai (2006)
10.1212/WNL.58.5.805
Accuracy of muscle localization without EMG: Implications for treatment of limb dystonia
F. M. Molloy (2002)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(1997)6+<21::AID-MUS4>3.0.CO;2-L
Common patterns of clinical motor dysfunction
N. Mayer (1997)
10.1111/J.1526-4637.2006.00147.X
Treatment of refractory, chronic low back pain with botulinum neurotoxin A: an open-label, pilot study.
B. Jabbari (2006)
10.1093/QJMED/95.8.493
Hemifacial spasm and involuntary facial movements.
N. Tan (2002)
10.1007/S10006-004-0575-3
[Botulinum toxin for treatment of gustatory sweating. A prospective randomized study].
D. Nolte (2004)
10.1177/000348948909800202
Botulinum Toxin Injection for the Treatment of Oromandibular Dystonia
A. Blitzer (1989)
10.1016/J.APMR.2006.10.017
Functional outcomes of intramuscular botulinum toxin type a and occupational therapy in the upper limbs of children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.
M. Wallen (2007)
10.1097/00019052-200112000-00015
Botulinum treatment of spasticity: why is it so difficult to show a functional benefit?
G. Sheean (2001)
10.1007/BF02234461
Botulinum toxin type-a in therapy of patients with anismus
Y. Ron (2001)
10.1016/j.pain.2003.10.008
Subcutaneous administration of botulinum toxin A reduces formalin-induced pain
M. Cui (2004)
Dysport
Markey AC. (2004)
10.1002/14651858.cd003633.pub2
Botulinum toxin type A therapy for cervical dystonia.
J. Costa (2005)
10.1097/00006534-198903000-00028
Blepharospasm and its treatment, with emphasis on the use of botulinum toxin.
G. Borodic (1989)
10.1111/j.1365-2133.2007.07691.x
Needle‐free anaesthesia prior to botulinum toxin type A injection treatment of palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis
A. Benohanian (2007)
10.1002/MUS.880180708
Five‐year experience in the treatment of focal movement disorders with low‐dose dysportTM botulinum toxin
P. V. D. van den Bergh (1995)
10.1136/jnnp.2003.032227
Factors predicting improvement in motor disability in writer’s cramp treated with botulinum toxin
R. Djebbari (2004)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01650.x
Clinical value of botulinum toxin in neurological indications
A. Ward (2006)
10.1111/j.1742-1241.2006.01181.x
Botulinum toxin injection therapy in the management of lower urinary tract dysfunction
A. Patel (2006)
10.5664/JCSM.26585
Successful treatment of recalcitrant restless legs syndrome with botulinum toxin type-A.
J. Rotenberg (2006)
10.1097/01.wco.0000227044.08447.c3
Status on the use of botulinum toxin for headache disorders
S. Evers (2006)
10.1002/mds.20793
Botulinum toxin type A for drooling in Parkinson's disease: A double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled study
G. Lagalla (2006)
10.1002/mds.10252
Long‐term efficacy of botulinum toxin A in treatment of various movement disorders over a 10‐year period
G. Hsiung (2002)
10.1016/S0149-2918(00)83049-0
Duration of effect of botulinum toxin type A in adult patients with cervical dystonia: a retrospective chart review.
A. Brashear (2000)
10.1017/S031716710003540X
A pilot study on the use of botulinum toxin in spasmodic torticollis.
J. Tsui (1985)
10.2146/ajhp050137
Unlabeled uses of botulinum toxins: a review, part 1.
C. M. Cheng (2006)
Long-term effi cacy of botulinum toxin A in treatment of various movement disorders over a 10-year period
GY Hsiung (2002)
[Treatment of cervical dystonia with botulinum toxin].
N. Gouider-Khouja (1999)
10.1177/000992289203100203
Drooling
W. Crysdale (1992)
10.1016/0022-510X(71)90129-8
An electron microscopic study of the changes induced by botulinum toxin in the motor end-plates of slow and fast skeletal muscle fibres of the mouse.
L. Duchen (1971)
10.1053/APMR.2003.50121
Botulinum toxin type A therapy in chronic pain disorders.
A. M. Lang (2003)
10.1212/WNL.42.4.878
Botulinum toxin injection for spasmodic torticollis
C. Comella (1992)
10.2147/ndt
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Kei Nagao
10.1136/bcr.08.2008.0611
New formulation of Botox: complete antibody-induced treatment failure in cervical dystonia
D. Dressler (2009)
Effi cacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A toxin complex ( Dysport ) for the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm
D Truong (2005)
Botulinum toxin type A with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm Scientifi c and therapeutic aspects of botulinum toxin. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins
Ja Mauriello (2002)
10.1097/00002508-200211001-00003
Possible Mechanisms for the Effects of Botulinum Toxin on Pain
J. Arezzo (2002)
10.1002/mus.20033
Botulinum toxins in neurological disease
C. Comella (2004)
10.1007/s00415-004-0347-x
New formulation of BOTOX®
D. Dressler (2004)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01442.x
Botulinum toxin therapy of hemifacial spasm: comparing different therapeutic preparations
K. Frei (2006)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01444.x
Management of spasticity in adults: practical application of botulinum toxin
M. Pathak (2006)
Botulinum toxin type A as a migraine preventive treatment. For the BOTOX Migraine Clinical Research Group.
S. Silberstein (2000)
10.4065/81.10.1387
Answers to frequently asked questions about migraine.
I. Garza (2006)
Sialorrhea: a management challenge.
N. Hockstein (2004)
Dosing, administration, and a treatment algorithm for use of botulinum toxin A for adult-onsetspasticity
M Brin (1997)
10.1097/01.AOG.0000141441.41178.6b
Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Refractory Vaginismus
S. Ghazizadeh (2004)
Botulinum toxin therapy: risk factors for therapy failure
D Dressler (2000)
10.1097/01.phm.0000176339.73591.d7
Treatment of Pain Attributed to Plantar Fasciitis with Botulinum Toxin A: A Short-Term, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study
Mary S. Babcock (2005)
Hyperhidrosis: evolving therapies
JL Atkinson (2005)
10.1097/01.PHM.0000056989.67763.07
Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A on Cerebral Palsy with Upper Limb Spasticity
T. Yang (2003)
10.1016/J.JPAINSYMMAN.2003.09.003
Botulinum toxin type A influences stump pain after limb amputations.
U. Kern (2003)
10.1002/MDS.870100619
Cervical dystonia and botulinum treatment: Is electromyographic guidance necessary?
J. Speelman (1995)
10.1002/14651858.CD004899.PUB2
Botulinum toxin type A therapy for hemifacial spasm.
J. Costa (2005)
10.1136/JNNP.68.6.707
Botulinum toxin (Dysport) treatment of hip adductor spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a prospective, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, dose ranging study.
N. Hyman (2000)
10.1002/14651858.cd003469
Botulinum toxin A as an adjunct to treatment in the management of the upper limb in children with spastic cerebral palsy.
J. Wasiak (2004)
10.1136/jnnp.53.6.530
Treatment of bruxism with botulinum toxin injections.
M. Van Zandijcke (1990)
10.1097/00002508-200103000-00002
The Peripheral Apparatus of Muscle Pain: Evidence From Animal and Human Studies
T. Graven-Nielsen (2001)
10.1136/jnnp.60.2.151
Historical note on the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin in neurological disorders.
F. Erbguth (1996)
N Engl J Med
D Tarsy (2006)
10.7326/0003-4819-129-3-199808010-00011
Botulism in the United States: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Review
R. Shapiro (1998)
10.1097/00002508-200211001-00013
Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders with Botulinum Toxin
M. Schwartz (2002)
10.1007/PL00007849
Comparison of preseptal and pretarsal injections of botulinum toxin in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
R. Çakmur (2002)
10.1517/14656566.6.9.1551
Controlling sialorrhoea: a review of available treatment options
A. Potulska (2005)
10.1002/mds.20025
Botulinum toxin treatment of occupational and focal hand dystonia
B. Karp (2004)
10.1111/j.1533-2500.2004.04014.x
Treatment of Low Back Pain with Botulinum Neurotoxins
B. Jabbari (2004)
10.1097/00002508-200211001-00004
Considering the Immune Response to Botulinum Toxin
J. Critchfield (2002)
10.4065/80.5.657
Hyperhidrosis: evolving therapies for a well-established phenomenon.
J. Eisenach (2005)
Botulinum toxin type A with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
Mauriello JA. (2002)
Dosing, administration, and a treatment algorithm for use of botulinum toxin A for adult-onsetspasticity . Muscle and Nerve
M Brin (1997)
Botulinum toxin injection for spasmodic torticollis : increased magnitude of benefi t with electromyographic assistance
CL Comella (1992)
The status of botulism as a world health problem
Meyer Kf (1956)
[Botulinum toxin in ophthalmology].
N. Guépratte (2001)
10.1016/0304-3959(86)90116-8
A hypothesis on the physiological basis for causalgia and related pains
W. Roberts (1986)
10.1212/WNL.43.1_Part_1.183
Botulinum toxin in the treatment of writer's cramp
J. Tsui (1993)
10.1111/j.1468-2982.2006.01160.x
Botulinum Toxin in Headache Treatment: The End of the Road?
S. Evers (2006)
10.1016/J.JAAD.2003.09.006
Local neural block at the wrist for treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin: technical improvements.
A. Campanati (2004)
10.1136/jnnp.2003.034702
Botulinum toxin in clinical practice
J. Jankovic (2004)
10.1073/PNAS.96.6.3200
Functional repair of motor endplates after botulinum neurotoxin type A poisoning: biphasic switch of synaptic activity between nerve sprouts and their parent terminals.
A. de Paiva (1999)
10.1056/NEJMOA011892
Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin for the treatment of wrist and finger spasticity after a stroke.
A. Brashear (2002)
10.1111/J.1468-2982.2007.01290_1.X
Botulinum Toxin in Headache Treatment: The End of The Road?
A. Mauskop (2007)
10.1006/EXCR.2001.5368
SNARE complex structure and function.
J. C. Hay (2001)
10.1212/WNL.46.5.1306
Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of upper extremity spasticity
D. Simpson (1996)
10.1038/365160A0
Botulinum neurotoxin A selectively cleaves the synaptic protein SNAP-25
J. Blasi (1993)
10.1002/mds.20067
Botulinum toxin treatment of secretory disorders
M. Naumann (2004)
10.1007/PL00007813
Botulinum toxin: evidence-based medicine criteria in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
W. Jost (2001)
Pharmacologic weakening of extraocular muscles.
A. B. Scott (1973)
A randomised, double-blind, dose-ranging study to evaluate effi
F Mancini (2005)
Classics in infectious diseases
E. Van Ermengem (1979)
10.1590/S0004-282X2005000100035
Botulinum toxin: mechanisms of action.
D. Dressler (2005)
BOTOX ® (botulinum toxin type A) package insert
(2004)
10.1212/WNL.56.11.1523
A randomized, double masked, controlled trial of botulinum toxin type A in essential hand tremor
M. Brin (2001)
The control of muscle tone, refl exes, and movement: Robert Wartenberg Lecture
Jw Lance (1980)
10.1212/01.WNL.0000182298.85958.46
Gustatory sweating: Frey syndrome
S. Reich (2005)
10.1016/j.jns.2005.04.017
Expanding use of botulinum toxin
R. Bhidayasiri (2005)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/j.brainres.2017.09.016
Intrastriatally injected botulinum neurotoxin-A differently effects cholinergic and dopaminergic fibers in C57BL/6 mice
Alexander Hawlitschka (2017)
Advancing the assessment of spasticity in the upper limb post stroke
Parvin Eftekhar (2017)
10.1002/micr.21967
GDNF overexpression fails to provoke muscle recovery from botulinum toxin poisoning: A preliminary study
Kenny F Lin (2012)
10.18231/2278-3784.2016.0002
BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO BOTULINUM TOXIN: A GENERAL REVIEW
Imon Pal (2017)
10.1016/j.jocn.2014.08.027
Successful treatment of open jaw and jaw deviation dystonia with botulinum toxin using a simple intraoral approach
M. Moscovich (2015)
10.1002/lsm.23023
The toxic edge—A novel treatment for refractory erythema and flushing of rosacea
O. Friedman (2019)
Botulinum Toxin in Pediatric Neurology : Switching Lanes From Death to Life
E. Moawad (2015)
10.2147/JPR.S25189
Increased levels of SV2A botulinum neurotoxin receptor in clinical sensory disorders and functional effects of botulinum toxins A and E in cultured human sensory neurons
Y. Yiangou (2011)
10.1093/asj/sjx005
New Uses of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Aesthetics
J. Schlessinger (2017)
10.1093/asj/sjw284
AbobotulinumtoxinA: A 25-Year History
G. Monheit (2017)
10.1007/s00702-012-0854-3
Comparative evaluation of the potency and antigenicity of two distinct BoNT/A-derived formulations
M. Brown (2012)
10.1016/j.brainres.2020.146877
Repeated intrastriatal application of botulinum neurotoxin-A did not influence choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive interneurons in hemiparkinsonian rat brain – A histological, stereological and correlational analysis
Alexander Hawlitschka (2020)
10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.09.051
Effect of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A injections into the deep digital flexor muscle on the range of motion of the metacarpus and carpus, and the force distribution underneath the hooves, of sound horses at the walk.
L. C. Hardeman (2013)
10.1080/01652176.2015.1106116
The use of electromyography interference pattern analysis to determine muscle force of the deep digital flexor muscle in healthy and laminitic horses
L. C. Hardeman (2016)
10.1016/B978-84-458-2022-3.50007-5
7 – Distonía oromandibular
C. V. Merino (2010)
10.36295/asro.2019.22099
Impact of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Spastic HandFunction with Assistive Devices in Children with Cerebral Palsy
S. Farhan (2019)
10.2165/11206340-000000000-00000
Botulinum Toxin A (Dysport®)
S. Keam (2012)
10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.09.050
The effect of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A injections on motor unit activity of the deep digital flexor muscle in healthy sound Royal Dutch sport horses.
I. Wijnberg (2013)
10.1016/j.rvsc.2014.08.006
Determination of equine deep digital flexor muscle volume based on distances between anatomical landmarks.
L. C. Hardeman (2014)
10.1177/2333794X15590149
Botulinum Toxin in Pediatric Neurology
E. Moawad (2015)
10.15584/ejcem.2019.3.10
Therapeutic possibilities of botulinum toxin in neurological disorders – treatment of limb spasticity in the course of brain damage
P. Nowak (2019)
10.3126/NJN.V12I1.15918
Role of Botulinum toxin injection in neurological problems: A Short Review
Isha Dhungana (2016)
10.3390/toxins7093758
A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Most Efficacious Dose of Botulinum Toxin-A for Sialorrhea Treatment in Asian Adults with Neurological Diseases
M. Mazlan (2015)
caminata de seis minutos para evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de toxina botulínica A en niños con marcha espástica
Carmen Alicia Aboytes-Meléndez (2013)
10.5772/64218
How Useful are Localization Techniques in Botulinum Toxin Injections for Dystonia and Spasticity Indications
N. Semerdjieva (2016)
10.1371/journal.pone.0128633
Neuronox versus BOTOX in the Treatment of Post-Stroke Upper Limb Spasticity: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
H. Seo (2015)
10.1007/s11064-020-03133-9
Intramuscular Injection of BOTOX® Boosts Learning and Memory in Adult Mice in Association with Enriched Circulation of Platelets and Enhanced Density of Pyramidal Neurons in the Hippocampus.
Ajisha Yesudhas (2020)
10.1016/J.JDDS.2014.06.002
Botulinum toxin: Non cosmetic and off-label dermatological uses
Ali S. Alghamdi (2015)
10.1111/dmcn.13988
Muscle volume alterations after first botulinum neurotoxin A treatment in children with cerebral palsy: a 6‐month prospective cohort study
C. Alexander (2018)
10.3390/ijms19061632
Bacterial Toxins and Targeted Brain Therapy: New Insights from Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1)
Elena Tantillo (2018)
10.1093/asj/sjw281
Introduction to the Supplement: A Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport)
J. Dover (2017)
10.1016/j.jvoice.2014.04.010
Pyridostigmine for reversal of severe sequelae from botulinum toxin injection.
D. Young (2014)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar