Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Recent Developments In Insulin Delivery Techniques

F. Kennedy
Published 2012 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
SummaryAlthough single or multiple daily subcutaneous injections of insulin are the mainstay of insulin delivery techniques, several other methods of insulin delivery are now available or in development, including: (a) continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion by a wearable infusion pump; (b) total or segmental transplantation of a pancreas; (c) transplantation of isolated islet cells; (d) implantation of a programmable insulin pump; (e) oral, nasal, rectal and transdermal mechanisms of insulin delivery; (f) insulin analogues; (g) implantation of polymeric capsules which give continuous or time-pulsed release of insulin; and (h) implantation of a biohybrid artificial pancreas which uses encapsulated islets. Many of these methods of insulin delivery are aimed at achieving a more physiological means of delivery of the insulin, thus to improve glycaemic control and hopefully minimise the secondary complications of diabetes.Techniques of multiple insulin injections and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps are already in widespread use and are resulting in improved glycaemic control. With the recent increased use of pancreatic transplantation, the rule of establishing euglycaemia will be elucidated in the treatment and prevention of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Despite these advances, the ideal delivery of insulin to patients has yet to be developed. Subcutaneous methods of insulin delivery do not precisely mimic physiological insulin needs and transplantation requires risky immunosuppression. However, the future does look bright as glucose sensors are developed and insulin analogues synthesised.
This paper references
10.1007/BF01725708
Importance of early postprandial insulin delivery in insulin-dependent diabetics
W. Kerner (2005)
Remotely controlled, implantable versus manually controlled, external insulin pump.
D. Schade (1984)
The entero-insular axis and the metabolic effects of gastro-enteropancreatic polypeptides.
J. Dupré (1980)
10.2337/diab.27.2.71
Mechanism of Barbituric-acid Protection Against Inhibition by Alloxan of Glucose-induced Insulin Release
D. C. Weaver (1978)
10.2337/diab.23.9.732
One to Five Days of Continuous Intravenous Insulin Infusion on Seven Diabetic Patients
G. Slama (1974)
The physiologic replacement of insulin. An elusive goal.
B. Zinman (1989)
10.1172/JCI108047
Proinsulin, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations in human portal and peripheral blood.
D. Horwitz (1975)
10.1097/00007890-198802000-00024
THE EFFECT OF PANCREAS TRANSPLANTATION ON DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY
J. A. van der Vliet (1988)
10.1016/0168-8227(90)90031-N
Implantable insulin pumps: a current look.
C. Saudek (1990)
10.1172/JCI109631
Importance of hepatic portal circulation for insulin action in streptozotocin-diabetic rats transplanted with fetal pancreases.
J. Brown (1979)
10.1007/BF00250891
Implanted constant basal rate insulin infusion devices for type 1 (Insulin-dependent) diabetic patients
H. Kritz (2004)
10.2337/diab.28.3.196
Long-Term Continuous Intravenous Insulin Therapy with a Portable Insulin Dosage-regulating Apparatus
K. Irsigler (1979)
10.2337/diacare.13.12.1265
Intensive Insulin Therapy for Treatment of Type I Diabetes
I. Hirsch (1990)
Orally administered Iiposome-intrapped insulin in diabetic animals
JF Arrieta-Molero (1982)
Clinical pancreas transplantation
R. Vanschilfgaarde (1983)
Treatment of a Type n diabetic by a totally implantable insulin infusion
H Buchwald (1981)
10.1016/0024-3205(81)90176-4
Oral ingestion of insulin liposomes: effects of the administration route.
C. Weingarten (1981)
10.1056/NEJM198907133210204
The effects of pancreas transplantation on the glomerular structure of renal allografts in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes.
R. Bilous (1989)
10.2337/diab.34.3.306
Prevention of Kidney Graft Diabetic Nephropathy by Pancreas Transplantation in Man
S. Bohman (1985)
10.1056/nejm198801283180411
Are continuing studies of metabolic control and microvascular complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus justified? The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial.
(1988)
10.2165/00003495-198938060-00006
Influence of the Degree of Control of Diabetes on the Prevention, Postponement and Amelioration of Late Complications
B. Zimmerman (2012)
Hybrid control of intraperitoneal insulin infusion
K Piwernetz (1988)
10.1001/ARCHINTE.1965.03860150108026
Transactions of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs.
B. A. Barnes (1965)
10.1111/j.2042-7158.1988.tb07001.x
External control of drug release: controlled release of insulin from a hydrophilic polymer implant by ultrasound irradiation in diabetic rats
S. Miyazaki (1988)
10.2337/diacare.4.3.377
Plasma Free Insulin Profiles After Administration of Insulin by Jet and Conventional Syringe Injection
R. Taylor (1981)
treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
EW Kraegen (1983)
Multiple insulin injections using a pen injector versus insulin pump treatment in young diabetic patients.
J. Bak (1987)
Long - term continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion with an Drugs 42 ( 2 ) 1991 implantable remote - controlled insulin infusion device
K Irsigler (1981)
10.1056/NEJM198012043032301
Control of blood sugar in insulin-dependent diabetes: comparison of an artificial endocrine pancreas, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, and intensified conventional insulin therapy.
R. Rizza (1980)
Resorption von Insulin and Asthmolysion von der Nasenschleimhart
J Hankiss (1958)
10.1111/j.1464-5491.1985.tb00585.x
Amyloid and Insulin Infusion Pumps
J. Pickup (1985)
Rectal delivery system for insulin.
W. Ritschel (1988)
10.1159/000179509
Orally administered liposome-entrapped insulin in diabetic animals. A critical assessment.
J. F. Arrieta-Molero (1982)
10.1016/S0025-6196(12)64820-4
Treatment options for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a comparison of the artificial endocrine pancreas, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, and multiple daily insulin injections.
R. Rizza (1986)
10.1007/BF00265097
In vivo molecular sensing in diabetes mellitus: an implantable glucose sensor with direct electron transfer
J. Pickup (2004)
10.2337/diacare.9.2.124
Glycemic Control with Closed-Loop Intraperitoneal Insulin in Type I Diabetes
H. Leblanc (1986)
10.7326/0003-4819-103-2-184
Intensive insulin therapy reduces counterregulatory hormone responses to hypoglycemia in patients with type I diabetes.
D. Simonson (1985)
10.2337/diab.32.1.88
No Evidence of Amyloidosis in Type I Diabetics Treated with Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion
V. A. Koivisto (1983)
10.1136/bmj.284.6330.1707-c
Insulin given intranasally induces hypoglycaemia in normal and diabetic subjects.
J. Hankiss (1982)
10.2337/diab.29.3.206
Continuous Subcutaneous Infusion of Insulin in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus
M. C. Champion (1980)
Implanted remote controlled insulin infusion device for long term continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion
K Irsigler (1983)
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): results offeasibility study. Diabetes care
DCCT Research Group (1987)
10.1056/NEJM198207293070501
The use of an implantable insulin pump in the treatment of type II diabetes.
W. Rupp (1982)
Theoretical studies on self-regulating insulin delivery system.
U. R. Shettigar (1986)
10.1038/333679A0
Monomeric insulins obtained by protein engineering and their medical implications
J. Brange (1988)
10.1530/ACTA.0.0950500
Comparison of intraperitoneal, intraportal and intravenous insulin infusion.
J. Poulsen (1980)
Use of an artificial beta cell in surgery.
Horwitz Dl (1979)
10.2337/diacare.4.2.319
Future Therapy of the Insulin-dependent Diabetic Patient—The Implantable Insulin Delivery System
D. Schade (1981)
10.2337/diacare.3.2.255
Role of Liver in Insulin Physiology
J. Field (1980)
10.1016/0002-9343(82)90479-X
Glycemic control in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Comparison of outpatient intensified conventional therapy with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.
M. L. Reeves (1982)
10.1111/j.1464-5491.1989.tb01160.x
Patient Experience with a Jet Injector
G. Rayman (1989)
10.1097/00003246-198504000-00017
Intensive Insulin Therapy
D. Schade (1985)
10.1111/J.1525-1594.1985.TB04362.X
Use of artificial pancreas and portable insulin infusion pumps in diabetes therapy: past, present, and future.
E. F. Pfeiffer (1985)
10.2337/diacare.7.2.188
Insulin Pharmacokinetics
C. Binder (1984)
10.2337/diacare.9.6.637
Comparison of Insulin Levels After Injection by Jet Stream and Disposable Insulin Syringe
J. Malone (1986)
10.4267/10608/3443
Les pancréas bioartificiels
G. Réach (1986)
10.2337/diacare.6.4.374
Importance of Timing of Preprandial Subcutaneous Insulin Administration in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus
G. Dimitriadis (1983)
10.1016/0950-3528(89)90035-3
Indication, selection of patients and timing for pancreatic transplantation.
J. Bolinder (1989)
Nasal insulin: an approach to peri-prandial control of blood glucose
AC Moses (1988)
Controlled release of insulin from polymer matrices. Diabetes
L Brown (1986)
10.1177/039139889001300501
Insulin therapy of diabetes with implantable infusion pumps: clinical aspects.
Sélam Jl (1990)
No sign of amyloidosis in pump-treated diabetics.
H. Regal (1988)
Rectal administration of insulin.
I. Raz (1984)
10.1016/0950-3528(89)90037-7
Aspects of pancreatic islet transplantation in diabetes mellitus.
C. Hellerström (1989)
10.2337/diab.37.7.901
Effect of Intensive Insulin Therapy on Glycemic Thresholds for Counterregulatory Hormone Release
S. Amiel (1988)
10.1111/j.1464-5491.1987.tb00862.x
Pulsatile Insulin Delivery: Physiology and Clinical Implications
P. Bratusch-Marrain (1987)
10.2337/diacare.9.6.591
Surveillance in Florida of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Use in Cohort
L. Deeb (1986)
10.2337/diacare.6.4.387
Glycerol Prevents Insulin Precipitation and Interruption of Flow in an Implantable Insulin Infusion Pump
P. J. Blackshear (1983)
10.2337/diacare.3.2.290
continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
J. Pickup (1980)
10.1016/S0025-6196(12)65585-2
Comparison of plasma insulin profiles after subcutaneous administration of insulin by jet spray and conventional needle injection in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
G. Pehling (1984)
10.1056/NEJM198402093100606
Mortality among diabetic patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin-infusion pumps.
S. Teutsch (1984)
10.2337/diacare.13.9.911
Insulin Administration via Liposomes
R. S. Spangler (1990)
An artificial beta cell for control of diabetes: comparison of glucose and free insulin levels with those achieved by subcutaneous insulin
DL Horwitz (1977)
10.2337/diacare.11.7.600
Position Statement on Jet Injectors
M. P. Golden (1988)
10.1001/JAMA.1982.03320380040026
A remotely programmable insulin delivery system. Successful short-term implantation in man.
D. Schade (1982)
10.1210/JCEM-66-6-1220
Pulsatile insulin delivery is more efficient than continuous infusion in modulating islet cell function in normal subjects and patients with type 1 diabetes.
G. Paolisso (1988)
10.1007/BF00251817
Pharmacokinetics of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
T. Lauritzen (2004)
10.5555/URI:PII:0039606067902620
Allotransplantation of the pancreas and duodenum along with the kidney in diabetic nephropathy.
Kelly Wd (1967)
10.1097/00000441-198905000-00009
Transdermal delivery of human insulin to albino rabbits using electrical current.
B. Meyer (1989)
10.1056/NEJM198908103210605
The Physiologic Replacement of Insulin
B. Zinman (1989)
10.2337/diacare.4.4.454
The Effectiveness of Rectal Administration of Insulin Suppository on Normal and Diabetic Subjects
Y. Yamasaki (1981)
10.1007/BF00870275
Diabetic control and microvascular complications: The near-normoglycaemic experience
K. Hanssen (2004)
10.2337/db12-0647
The Artificial Pancreas
J. Radziuk (2012)
Use of an artificial beta cell in surgery.
D. Horwitz (1979)
10.1001/JAMA.1984.03350230025026
Acute complications associated with insulin infusion pump therapy. Report of experience with 161 patients.
R. Mecklenburg (1984)
10.2337/diab.34.4.353
Pump-induced Insulin Aggregation: A Problem with the Biostator
J. R. Brennan (1985)
10.1016/S0140-6736(81)92402-8
TREATMENT OF A TYPE II DIABETIC BY A TOTALLY IMPLANTABLE INSULIN INFUSION DEVICE
H. Buchwald (1981)
10.1177/003693308803300206
Management of diabetes resistant to subcutaneous insulin with intravenous insulin via an implanted infusion pump.
Paterson Kr (1988)
Intensive insulin therapy , Excerpta Medica , Amsterdam , 1983 Scharp DW . Islet transplantation
DS Schade
10.1136/bmj.297.6658.1236
Recombinant DNA derived monomeric insulin analogue: comparison with soluble human insulin in normal subjects.
J. Vora (1988)
10.2337/diab.31.6.479
Special Comment: Meticulous Control of Diabetes: Benefits, Risks, and Precautions
R. Unger (1982)
10.1016/0014-5793(76)80016-6
Oral administration of insulin by encapsulation within liposomes
H. M. Patel (1976)
A bioartificial pancreas prevents chronic complications of diabetes in rats.
J. J. Altman (1986)
Effect of multiple insulin injections with a pen injector on metabolic control and general well-being in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
M. A. Gall (1989)
10.2337/diacare.13.9.955
Devices for Insulin Administration
J. Selam (1990)
Control of blood glucose in experimental diabetes by means of totally implantable insulin infusion
PJ Blackshear (1979)
10.1097/00002480-197902500-00023
Intraperitoneal insulin with CAPD - an artificial pancreas.
C. Flynn (1979)
sociation of insulin pump therapy with raised serum amyloid A in Type I diabetes mellitus
M Brownlee (1984)
10.2337/diab.32.6.499
Glycosylated Insulin Complexed to Concanavalin A: Biochemical Basis for a Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery System
M. Brownlee (1983)
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion does not include a significant acute phase respnse of serum A protein
JJ Binding (1985)
Evaluation of endocrine function in pancreas transplant recipients
G Pozza (1988)
Long-term continuous intravenous insulin therapy with a portable insulin dosage-regulating apparatus. Diabetes
K Irsigler (1979)
10.1007/BF00279918
Production of insulin resistance by hyperinsulinaemia in man
R. Rizza (2004)
Comparison of nasal, rectal, buccal, sublingual and intramuscular insulin efficacy and the effects of a bile salt absorption promoter.
B. Aungst (1988)
10.1111/J.0954-6820.1987.TB03360.X
A crossover comparison of continuous insulin infusion and conventional injection treatment of type I diabetes.
E. Helve (1987)
10.1016/S0140-6736(88)91912-5
PANCREAS TRANSPLANTATION FOR DIABETES
D. Sutherland (1988)
10.1530/ACTA.0.1170019
Reduction of urinary albumin excretion after 4 years of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Oslo Study.
K. Dahl-Jørgensen (1988)
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Update. DCCT Research Group.
(1990)
10.2337/diacare.7.1.1
Diabetic Ketoacidosis During Long-Term Treatment with Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion
N. Peden (1984)
10.1126/science.187.4179.847
Beta cell culture on synthetic capillaries: an artificial endocrine pancreas
W. Chick (1975)
10.1111/j.1464-5491.1985.tb00690.x
A Multiple Injection Regimen using an Insulin Injection Pen and Pre‐filled Cartridged Soluble Human Insulin in Adolescents with Diabetes
I. Jefferson (1985)
Combined renal and pancreatic transplantation: effects on advanced diabetic neuropathy and retinopathy.
I. Brekke (1985)
Potential novel methods for insulin administration: I. Iontophoresis.
R. Stephen (1984)
10.1111/J.1525-1594.1988.TB02779.X
Artificial endocrine pancreas (closed-loop-system for blood sugar control in diabetes mellitus): introduction to the subject.
E. F. Pfeiffer (1988)
10.2337/diab.30.2.S54
The Role of Insulin in Atherosclerosis in Diabetics and Nondiabetics: A Review
R. W. Stout (1981)
10.2337/DIACARE.13.9.955
Devices for insulin administration.
Sélam Jl (1990)
10.2337/diacare.11.9.739
Absorption Kinetics of Short- and Intermediate-Acting Insulins After Jet Injection With Medi-Jector II
C. Houtzagers (1988)
Intraindividual comparison of short-term vs long-term portal and peripheral insulin infusion: differential effects on glucose carbon recycling
E-J Freyse (1988)
10.1016/0026-0495(88)90180-1
Atherosclerosis in diabetes: the role of hyperinsulinemia.
M. Stolar (1988)
10.1016/0026-0495(88)90062-5
Glycerol-insulin raises circulating insulin antibodies in type I diabetic patients treated with permanently implanted devices.
P. Micossi (1988)
Islet cell function: comparison of portal versus sytemic venous insulin
CE Haug (1988)
10.1136/bmj.1.6107.204
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: an approach to achieving normoglycaemia.
J. Pickup (1978)
10.1055/S-2007-1004908
Intranasal insulin administration in insulin dependent diabetes: reproducibility of its absorption and effects.
I. Sinay (1990)
10.1089/JOP.1989.5.81
Systemic delivery of insulin through eyes to lower the glucose concentration.
G. Chiou (1989)
sulin given intranasally induces hypoglycemia in normal and diabetic subjects
AE Pontioroli (1982)
10.2337/diab.31.3.255
Comparison Between Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion and Multiple Injections of Insulin: A One-Year Prospective Study
A. Schiffrin (1982)
10.1126/SCIENCE.3526553
A new approach to the oral administration of insulin and other peptide drugs.
M. Saffran (1986)
Does an insulin pen improve the metabolic control of type 1 diabetes mellitus if added to conventional treatment?
A. Roos (1989)
10.2337/diacare.11.1.46
Factors Related to Discontinuation of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin-Infusion Therapy
T. Guinn (1988)
10.1073/PNAS.85.7.2403
Enzymatically controlled drug delivery.
F. Fischel-Ghodsian (1988)
10.1016/S0025-6196(12)62429-X
Intensive Insulin Therapy
J. Godine (1984)
10.2337/diab.39.2.142
Pattern of Postprandial Carbohydrate Metabolism and Effects of Portal and Peripheral Insulin Delivery
E. Kryshak (1990)
10.1055/S-0028-1093650
Attempts at perfect normalization of glucose tolerance test of severe diabetics by artificial beta cell.
W. Kerner (1976)
The ocular route for systemic insulin delivery in the albino rabbit.
A. Yamamoto (1989)
The artificial pancreas today.
McMurry Jf (1983)
10.1016/S0140-6736(87)91851-4
EFFECTS OF COMBINED PANCREATIC AND RENAL TRANSPLANTATION ON DIABETIC NEUROPATHY: A TWO-YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY
G. Solders (1987)
10.1056/NEJM198801283180403
Progression of diabetic retinopathy after pancreas transplantation for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
R. Ramsay (1988)
10.1007/BF00258308
Normalization of plasma insulin profiles with intraperitoneal insulin infusion in diabetic man
D. Schade (2004)
10.2337/diacare.3.2.351
A Totally Implantable Drug Infusion Defice: Laboratory and Clinical Experience Using a Model with Single Flow Rate and New Design for Modulated Insulin Infusion
H. Buchwald (1980)
International pancreas transplantation registry analysis.
D. Sutherland (1990)
10.1097/00007890-198805000-00034
ISLET GRAFT FUNCTION: COMPARISON OF PORTAL VERSUS SYSTEMIC VENOUS INSULIN DELIVERY
C. Haug (1988)
10.2337/diab.39.3.323
Effects of Islet Isografts on Hemodynamic and Vascular Filtration Changes in Diabetic Rats
G. Pugliese (1990)
10.2337/diacare.8.1.73
Clinical Experience with a New Device that Will Simplify Insulin Injections
A. Berger (1985)
10.1055/S-2007-1004876
Biological activity of nasally administered insulin in normal subjects.
M. Nolte (1990)
10.2337/diab.36.12.1453
Stable Insulin Preparation for Implanted Insulin Pumps: Laboratory and Animal Trials
U. Grau (1987)
10.1055/S-2007-1010880
Current status of clinical islet transplantation.
B. Hering (1988)
10.1016/0026-0495(81)90164-5
The kinetics of peritoneal insulin absorption.
D. Schade (1981)
The development of Biostator, a Glucose Controlled Insulin Infusion System (GCIIS).
A. H. Clemens (1977)
10.1056/NEJM198908313210904
A preliminary trial of the programmable implantable medication system for insulin delivery.
C. Saudek (1989)
10.1056/NEJM198508223130802
Long-term metabolic control with insulin pump therapy. Report of experience with 127 patients.
R. Mecklenburg (1985)
10.1055/S-2007-996224
Glucose clamping using the Biostator GCIIS.
C. Verdonk (1980)
10.1111/j.1464-5491.1988.tb00959.x
The Medi‐Jector II: Efficacy and Acceptability in Insulin‐dependent Diabetic Patients With and Without Needle Phobia
C. M. G. J. Houtzagers (1988)
10.1056/NEJM198705283162205
Defective glucose counterregulation after strict glycemic control of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
S. Amiel (1987)
Closure of the loop by glucose sensing. Physiological and practical considerations.
E. Kraegen (1988)
10.1111/j.1464-5491.1988.tb01102.x
A Randomized Trial of the Efficacy and Acceptability of a Pen Injector
D. Murray (1988)
10.1007/978-94-011-3386-9_47
Pancreas transplantation in non-uremic diabetic recipients
D. Sutherland (1991)
10.1097/00000441-193608000-00015
THE INTRANASAL APPLICATION OF INSULIN, EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL EXPERIENCES
R. Major (1935)
10.1177/039139889001300501
Insulin therapy of diabetes with implantable infusion pumps: clinical aspects.
J. Selam (1990)
and non - diabetes : a review
Sutherland DER (1981)
Potential novel methods for insulin administration: II. Self-regulating internal drug delivery systems.
R. Stephen (1984)
10.1007/BF00280891
Chemical stability of insulin in a delivery system environment
U. Grau (2004)
10.1056/NEJM198504253121702
Intranasal aerosolized insulin. Mixed-meal studies and long-term use in type I diabetes.
R. Salzman (1985)
10.1152/AJPENDO.1983.244.2.E190
Effect of intraportal and peripheral insulin on glucose turnover and recycling in diabetic dogs.
R. W. Stevenson (1983)
10.1097/00007890-196801000-00034
Allotransplantation of the pancreas and duodenum along with the kidney in diabetic nephropathy.
W. D. Kelly (1967)
Pancreas transplantation at Mayo
J. Perkins (1990)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb45790.x
Transdermal Iontophoretic Delivery of Therapeutic Peptides/Proteins I: Insulin
Y. Chien (1987)
One year continuous run with a totally implantable insulin infusion pump in a human diabetic.
J. Mirouze (1983)
10.2337/diab.35.2.217
Control of Blood Glucose Levels in Alloxan-diabetic Rabbits by Iontophoresis of Insulin
B. Kari (1986)
10.2337/diacare.13.9.923
Monomeric Insulins and Their Experimental and Clinical Implications
J. Brange (1990)
Closed-loop systems in the management of diabetes
M Ravnik-Oblak (1988)
10.3109/00365518109090510
An artificial betacell: assessment of the glucose analyser, infusion system and optimization of constants for the algorithms.
J. Christiansen (1981)
The administration of insulin by continuous injection
J. Metcalf (1934)
10.1056/NEJM197903153001101
Reduction to normal of plasma glucose in juvenile diabetes by subcutaneous administration of insulin with a portable infusion pump.
W. Tamborlane (1979)
10.1002/JPS.2600760416
Facilitated transdermal transport of insulin.
O. Siddiqui (1987)
10.1097/00000658-198509000-00002
Implantable Infusion Pump Management of Insulin Resistant Diabetes Mellitus
H. Buchwald (1985)
10.1111/j.1464-5491.1985.tb00691.x
Experience With NovoPen®, an Injection Device using Cartridged Insulin, for Diabetic Patients
D. Walters (1985)
Recurrent diabetic nephropathy in renal allografts placed in diabetic patients and protective effect of simultaneous pancreatic transplantation.
S. Bohman (1987)
10.1126/SCIENCE.6776628
Microencapsulated islets as bioartificial endocrine pancreas.
F. Lim (1980)
10.1097/00002480-198804000-00012
Report from the International Study Group on Implantable Insulin Delivery Devices.
G. Knatterud (1988)
[Combined kidney and pancreas transplantation in late-stage diabetes].
B. Greger (1994)
10.1016/S0140-6736(84)91750-1
ASSOCIATION OF INSULIN PUMP THERAPY WITH RAISED SERUM AMYLOID A IN TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS
M. Brownlee (1984)
10.1016/S0168-8227(88)80028-7
Similar effects of pulsatile and constant intravenous insulin delivery.
W. Kerner (1988)
Use ofan artificial beta cell in surgery. Hormone and Metabolic Research 8 (Suppl
DL Horwitz (1979)
10.2337/diab.30.12.1072
Long-term Continuous Intraperitoneal Insulin Infusion with an Implanted Remote-Controlled Insulin Infusion Device
K. Irsigler (1981)
10.1007/BF00258302
Insulin aggregation in artificial delivery systems
W. Lougheed (2004)
10.1136/bmj.290.6469.655
Pros and cons of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.
P. Watkins (1985)
10.1007/BF00282527
Failure to find amyloidosis in dogs treated with long-term intravenous insulin delivered by a totally implantable pump
S. Mauer (2004)
10.1177/039139889001300601
Bioartificial Pancreas: Status and Bottlenecks
G. Reach (1990)
10.2337/diacare.12.6.415
Toward a hybrid Artificial Pancreas
E. Friedman (1989)
10.2337/diacare.6.2.105
Long-Term Ambulatory Peritoneal Insulin Infusion of Brittle Diabetes with Portable Pumps: Comparison with Intravenous and Subcutaneous Routes
J. Selam (1983)
10.2337/diab.19.5.302
Portal and Peripheral Vein Immunoreactive Insulin Concentrations Before and After Glucose Infusion
W. Blackard (1970)
10.2337/diab.34.3.S22
Observations on Control of Glycemia with Conventional Insulin Therapy or Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion
W. Tamborlane (1985)
10.2337/diacare.10.1.1
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): Results of Feasibility Study. The DCCT Research Group
O. Crofford (1987)
10.2337/diab.35.6.692
Controlled Release of Insulin From Polymer Matrices: Control of Diabetes in Rats
L. Brown (1986)
duction of insulin resistance by hyperinsulinemia in man
RA Rizza (1985)
10.1097/00007890-197703000-00017
Islet transplantation.
C. Meyer (2007)
10.1136/bmj.299.6696.415
NovoSol Basal: pharmacokinetics of a novel soluble long acting insulin analogue.
S. Jørgensen (1989)
International study group on implantable insulin delivery devices registry
V Koivisto (1988)
10.2337/diacare.6.2.122
Exercise in Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: The Effect of Continuous Insulin Infusion Using the Subcutaneous, Intravenous, and Intraperitoneal Sites
B. Gooch (1983)
10.1056/NEJM198303033080903
Identification of type I diabetic patients at increased risk for hypoglycemia during intensive therapy.
N. White (1983)
10.1111/j.2042-7158.1989.tb06372.x
Effectiveness of insulin suppositories in diabetic patients
T. Nishihata (1989)
10.1016/0950-3528(89)90038-9
Metabolic control and effect on secondary complications of diabetes mellitus by pancreatic transplantation.
R. Landgraf (1989)
Intranasal insulin : a unique approach to insulin therapy
RD Silver (1990)
10.1056/NEJM198507253130405
Glucose counterregulation, hypoglycemia, and intensive insulin therapy in diabetes mellitus.
P. Cryer (1985)
10.1016/0026-0495(80)90005-0
Insulin, glucagon, and amino acids during glycemic control by the artificial pancreas in diabetic man.
A. Hanna (1980)
10.1016/0140-6736(90)90602-2
Comparison of insulin analogue B9AspB27Glu and soluble human insulin in insulin-treated diabetes
S. Kang (1990)
10.1177/039139889001300701
A Case for Oral Insulin Therapy in the Prevention of Diabetic Micro- and Macroangiopathy
G. Gwinup (1990)
Normalization of plasma glucose of unstable diabetes: studies under ambulatory, fed conditions with pumped intravenous insulin.
F. J. Service (1978)
10.2337/diab.23.5.389
An Artificial Endocrine Pancreas
A. Albisser (1974)
10.2337/diab.28.1.71
Closed-loop and Open-loop Devices for Blood Glucose Control in Normal and Diabetic Subjects
J. Santiago (1978)
10.2337/diacare.4.6.624
Cutaneous Complications of Chronic Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy
A. Pietri (1981)
10.1007/BF00421230
Relation of diabetic control to development of microvascular complications
G. Tchobroutsky (2004)
10.1016/0002-9343(81)90425-3
Treatment of diabetes mellitus by devices.
J. Soeldner (1981)
10.2337/diab.32.12.1092
Unanticipated Amyloidosis in Dogs Infused with Insulin
A. Albisser (1983)
10.2337/diacare.9.4.356
simple Solution to Problem of Biostator-Induced Insulin Aggregation
M. D. Harris (1986)
10.1007/BF00257733
Subcutaneous versus intraperitoneal administration of insulin on post-prandial hyperglycaemia and glucose turnover in alloxan diabetic dogs
R. Rizza (2004)
Does an insulin pen improve the metabolic control of type 1 diabetes mellitus if added to conventional treatment
Roos An (1989)
10.2337/diab.32.11.1040
Insulin Administered Intranasally as an Insulin-Bile Salt Aerosol: Effectiveness and Reproducibility in Normal and Diabetic Subjects
A. Moses (1983)
An artificial beta cell for control of diabetes : comparison of glucose and free insulin levels with those achieved by subcutaneous insulin . Abstract no . 96
DL Horwitz (1977)
10.1007/BF00262012
The metabolic response to hyperglycaemic clamping in insulin-dependent diabetes
R. Nosadini (2004)
LandgrafR (Eds). Clinical pancreas transplantation, the world experience
W Land (1987)
Use of an artificial endocrine pancreas in diabetic pregnancy.
G. Tamás (1979)
10.2337/diab.23.5.397
Clinical Control of Diabetes by the Artificial Pancreas
A. Albisser (1974)
The artificial pancreas today.
J. McMurry (1983)
10.2337/diacare.19.1.s36
Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion
Pd redaction (1996)
10.2337/diacare.3.1.1
A Portable System for Continuous Intravenous Insulin Delivery: Characteristics and Results in Diabetic Patients
Amir K Hanna (1980)
Design and initial testing of a totally implantable transcutaneously controllable insulin delivery device.
P. Perkins (1978)
Variations of insulin requirements in insulin-dependent diabetics for meals taken at different times of the day
W Kerner (1982)
10.1007/BF00274572
On the way to the automated (blood) glucose regulation in diabetes: the dark past, the grey present and the rosy future
E. F. Pfeiffer (2004)
10.2337/diab.33.12.1200
Closed-Loop Glycemic Control with a Wearable Artificial Endocrine Pancreas Variations in Daily Insulin Requirements to Glycemic Response
M. Shichiri (1984)
10.2337/diab.28.7.634
Control of Blood Glucose in Experimental Diabetes by Means of a Totally Implantable Insulin Infusion Device
P. Blackshear (1979)



This paper is referenced by
10.1201/B11775-14
Insulin-nanoparticles for Transdermal Absorption
Jiangling Wan (2012)
Brain Targetting through Intranasal Route
K. Kulkarni (2013)
10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b00708
Immense Insulin Intestinal Uptake and Lymphatic Transport Using Bile Acid Conjugated Partially Uncapped Liposome.
K. Kim (2018)
10.1016/J.PROGPOLYMSCI.2012.04.004
Strategies for effective oral insulin delivery with modified chitosan nanoparticles: A review
Piyasi Mukhopadhyay (2012)
10.1002/APP.38814
Formulation of pH‐responsive carboxymethyl chitosan and alginate beads for the oral delivery of insulin
Piyasi Mukhopadhyay (2013)
10.1080/00268976.2011.575408
Interaction of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes and insulin
M. M. Mady (2011)
Non invasive insulins: advanced insulin therapy over this decade
T. Rajeswari (2011)
10.1039/d0ra00382d
Polymeric nano-vesicles via intermolecular action to load and orally deliver insulin with enhanced hypoglycemic effect
Yumiao Hu (2020)
Novel Thermal Analytical Techniques to Characterize Drugs and Drug Delivery
Lakshmi Kaza (2011)
10.4103/0377-2063.102314
Knowledge-based Closed-loop Control of Blood Glucose Concentration in Diabetic Patients and Comparison with H∞ Control Technique
S. Yasini (2012)
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.03.020
Cp1-11 peptide/insulin complex loaded pH-responsive nanoparticles with enhanced oral bioactivity.
Xingyu Chen (2019)
10.1109/PACC.2011.5979042
Control of Blood Glucose Concentration in Type I Diabetic Patients
Surekha Kamath (2011)
Study of the Metabolic Effect and Histopathological Nasal Mucosal Changes after Prolonged Intranasal Insulin Administration
F. Amara (2011)
10.1039/C4TX00102H
Assessment of in vivo chronic toxicity of chitosan and its derivates used as oral insulin carriers
Piyasi Mukhopadhyay (2015)
NONINVASIVE INSULIN DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW
Divyen Shah (2010)
10.1039/C5RA18896B
Quercetin in anti-diabetic research and strategies for improved quercetin bioavailability using polymer-based carriers – a review
Piyasi Mukhopadhyay (2015)
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.06.047
Two-layered dissolving microneedles formulated with intermediate-acting insulin.
Y. Ito (2012)
10.1081/E-EBPP-120042786
Hydrogels: Glucose-Responsive
Nicholas A Peppas (2015)
10.1186/s12951-015-0136-y
Nanoparticle based insulin delivery system: the next generation efficient therapy for Type 1 diabetes
G. Sharma (2015)
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.01.302
Modified apple polysaccharide capped gold nanoparticles for oral delivery of insulin.
Y. Kumari (2020)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar