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Bioavailability Enhancement Of Poorly Soluble Drugs: The Holy Grail In Pharma Industry

Mamunur Rashid, Mohd Yaseen Malik, Sandeep K. Singh, Swati Chaturvedi, Jiaur R Gayen, Muhammad Wahajuddin

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Background: Bioavailability, one of the prime pharmacokinetic properties of a drug, is defined as the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is used to describe the systemic availability of a drug. Bioavailability assessment is imperative in order to demonstrate whether the drug attains the desirable systemic exposure for effective therapy. In recent years, bioavailability has become the subject of importance in drug discovery and development studies. Methods: A systematic literature review in the field of bioavailability and the approaches towards its enhancement have been comprehensively done, purely focusing upon recent papers. The data mining was performed using databases like PubMed, Science Direct and general Google searches and the collected data was exhaustively studied and summarized in a generalized manner. Results: The main prospect of this review was to generate a comprehensive one-stop summary of the numerous available approaches and their pharmaceutical applications in improving the stability concerns, physicochemical and mechanical properties of the poorly water-soluble drugs which directly or indirectly augment their bioavailability. Conclusion: The use of novel methods, including but not limited to, nano-based formulations, bio-enhancers, solid dispersions, lipid-and polymer-based formulations which provide a wide range of applications not only increases the solubility and permeability of the poorly bioavailable drugs but also improves their stability, and targeting efficacy. Although, these methods have drastically changed the pharmaceutical industry demand for the newer potential methods with better outcomes in the field of pharmaceutical science to formulate various dosage forms with adequate systemic availability and improved patient compliance, further research is required.