First Line Treatments For Newly Diagnosed Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia In Children: A Systematic Review And Network Meta-analysis
The first-line interventions in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) include intravenous polyclonal immunoglobulins (IVIg), corticosteroids and anti-D immunoglobulin (anti-D).
We aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of first line treatments for newlydiagnosed primary ITP in children to increase the platelet count.
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); and included the clinical trials. We performed the statistical analysis in R.
We included 12 studies for meta-analysis. Compared with IVIG 2g/kg, response rates were lower for prednisone 2mg/kg at 72 hours [RR 0.04 (95% CI 0.0 to 0.68)] and at 7 days [RR 0.23 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.67)]; at 48 hours, methylprednisolone 30mg/kg also showed lower response rates [RR 0.72 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.99)]. IVIG 2g/kg and 2.5g/kg had less adverse effects than Anti- D, methylprednisolone and IVIG 0.8g/kg. For rising platelet count, no statistical differences were found at 24 hours or in 7 days; at 48 hours, IVIG 2g/kg showed better results than Anti-D 75μg/kg [MD -58.84 (95% CI -87.02 to -25.66)]. After a month, platelet count with IVIG 2g/kg was higher than Anti-D 50 and 75μg/kg [-82.03 (95% CI -102.60 to -61.46) and -78.77 (95% CI -97.80 to - 59.74), respectively], but lower than methylprednisolone 50mg/kg [MD 118 (95% CI 3.88 to 232.12)].
The total platelet count rises higher in early and late phases with IVIG than Anti-D, but in long term it is higher with methylprednisolone. Additionally, IVIG causes less adverse effects than Anti-D and corticosteroids.