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Recent Advances And Novel Approaches For Nose To Brain Drug Delivery For Treatment Of Migraine

Nidhi Sachan, Shiv Bahadur, Pramod K. Sharma

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Background: Nasal drug delivery has been used since ancient times for therapeutic and recreational purposes. For the last decades, nasal drug delivery has been extended for drug delivery to the brain. Therefore, it is important to understand the several physiological and physicochemical factors of the nose for brain drug delivery. Objective: A major highlight of the present review article is the several aspects of the nose to brain delivery for migraine treatment. This review will help to understand different factors which are needed to be considered for intra-nasal formulations to achieve the desired therapeutic effects. Method: There are different drug delivery routes available for migraine treatment. Nasal route of administration may be optimal for migraine treatment which has better drug concentration in the brain. These approaches may be associated with limiting the adverse effects of drug therapeutics. Results: A list of total FDA approved approaches has been provided. Novel approaches used for drug targeting to get maximum drug concentration in the brain have been highlighted. Several novel drug delivery approaches such as nanoparticle, nanoemulsion, microspheres, etc. have been reported and better therapeutic effects have been observed. Among the novel approaches, some of them are currently under either Phase II or Phase III development but may prove to offer better clinical effects. These approaches would become the alternate choice for migraine treatment with patients experiencing symptoms consistent with gastrointestinal dysfunction associated with migraine. Conclusion: Intra-nasal administration of drugs for migraine treatment may offer an interesting alternative for achieving therapeutic effects of drugs which are comparable to the parenteral route. Nasal drug delivery can be an alternative route of drug administration for migraine treatment to achieve better bioavailability.