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Utilization Of Microfluidics For The Preparation Of Polymeric Nanoparticles For The Antioxidant Rutin: A Comparison With Bulk Production

Hanh T.H. Vu, Sarah Streck, Sarah M. Hook, Arlene McDowell

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Objective: To compare the characteristics of rutin-loaded PLGA (poly(lactic-coglycolic acid)) nanoparticles prepared using a single emulsion evaporation method (bulk method) and a nanoprecipitation method using microfluidics. Method: Rutin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were produced using different methods and characterized for size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL). A design of experiments approach was used to identify the effect of method parameters to optimize the formulation. DSC was used to investigate the solid-state characteristics of rutin and PLGA and identify any interactions in the rutin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles. The release of rutin from PLGA nanoparticles was examined in biorelevant media and phosphate buffer (PBS). Results : The optimal formulation of rutin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles produced using a microfluidics method resulted in a higher entrapment efficiency of 34 ± 2% and a smaller size of 123 ± 4 nm compared to a bulk method (EE 27 ± 1%, size 179 ± 13 nm). The solidstate of rutin and PLGA changed from crystalline to amorphous with the preparation of rutin- loaded PLGA nanoparticles. More importantly, using microfluidics, rutin released faster from rutin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in biorelevant media and PBS with higher burst release compared to the rutin release from the nanoparticles prepared by using the bulk method. Conclusion: Rutin can be encapsulated in nanoparticles formulated with different methods with mean sizes of less than 200 nm. Microfluidics produced more uniform rutin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a higher EE, DL and faster release compared to a bulk production method.