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Green Graphene Nanoplates For Combined Photo-chemo-thermal Therapy Of Triple-negative Breast Cancer

Anuradha Gadeval, Rahul Maheshwari, Nidhi Raval, Dnyaneshwar Kalyane, Kiran Kalia, Rakesh K Tekade

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Aim: Green graphene oxide (GO) nanoplates, which are reduced and stabilized by quercetin and guided by folate receptors (quercetin reduced and loaded GO nanoparticles-folic acid [FA]), were developed to mediate combined photo-chemo-thermal therapy of triple-negative breast cancer. Materials & methods: Modified Hummers method was used for the synthesis of GO followed by its reduction using quercetin, FA was then conjugated as a targeting ligand. A cytotoxicity assay, apoptosis assay and cellular uptake assay were performed in vitro in MDA-MB-231 cell line with and without irradiation of a near-infrared 808 nm laser. Results & conclusion: Quercetin reduced and loaded GO nanoparticles-FA showed significantly high cellular uptake (p < 0.001) and cytotoxic effects in MDA-MB-231 cells, which was even more prominent under the situation of near-infrared 808 nm laser irradiation, making it a potential option for treating triple-negative breast cancer.