Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

A Multiple Testing Procedure For Clinical Trials.

P. C. O'Brien, T. Fleming
Published 1979 · Mathematics, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
A multiple testing procedure is proposed for comparing two treatments when response to treatment is both dichotomous (i.e., success or failure) and immediate. The proposed test statistic for each test is the usual (Pearson) chi-square statistic based on all data collected to that point. The maximum number (N) of tests and the number (m1 + m2) of observations collected between successive tests is fixed in advance. The overall size of the procedure is shown to be controlled with virtually the same accuracy as the single sample chi-square test based on N(m1 + m2) observations. The power is also found to be virtually the same. However, by affording the opportunity to terminate early when one treatment performs markedly better than the other, the multiple testing procedure may eliminate the ethical dilemmas that often accompany clinical trials.
This paper references

This paper is referenced by
Continuous Infusion of Clonidine in Ventilated Newborns and Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial*
C. Huenseler (2014)
Biostatistical Issues in TBI Clinical Trials
S. Yeatts (2018)
UvA-DARE ( Digital Academic Repository ) Austerity in MCMC Land : Cutting the Metropolis-Hastings
Budget (2013)
Biostatistische Grundlagen
Marcus Hudec (2008)
Selenium and inhibition of disease progression in men diagnosed with prostate carcinoma: study design and baseline characteristics of the ‘Watchful Waiting’ Study
M. S. Strattona (2003)
Deep brain stimulation for dystonia.
G. Duarte (2016)
Phase III trial of high-dose sequential chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell support compared with standard dose chemotherapy for first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer: intergroup trial of the AGO-Ovar/AIO and EBMT.
V. Möbus (2007)
Marker Sequential Test (MaST) design
B. Freidlin (2014)
Interim Evaluation of Efficacy in Clinical Trials with Two Primary Endpoints
T. Hamasaki (2016)
Editor’s special invited paper: On the efficient score vector in sequential monitoring
E. Gombay (2017)
Monitoring Phase II Comparative Clinical Trials with Two Endpoints and Penalty for Adverse Events
S. Bersimis (2018)
Is plaque regrowth inhibited by dentifrice?
C. Valkenburg (2019)
Group-Sequential Methods for Adaptive Seamless Phase II/III Clinical Trials
N. Stallard (2011)
Strategy of continued vs interrupted novel oral anticoagulant at time of device surgery in patients with moderate to high risk of arterial thromboembolic events: The BRUISE CONTROL-2 trial.
V. Essebag (2016)
Endovascular treatment versus medical care alone for ischaemic stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis
F. Rodrigues (2016)
Efficacy and safety of the FOLFOX4 regimen versus doxorubicin in Chinese patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a subgroup analysis of the EACH study.
S. Qin (2014)
Sequential Methods for Clinical Trials
J. Whitehead (2014)
The uniform general signed rank test and its design sensitivity
Steven R. Howard (2019)
A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of High-Dose Supplementation With Vitamins C and E and Beta Carotene for Age-Related Cataract and Vision Loss
Alan D. Penman (2001)
Comparison of Single-use and Reusable Metal Laryngoscope Blades for Orotracheal Intubation during Rapid Sequence Induction of Anesthesia: A Multicenter Cluster Randomized Study
J. Amour (2010)
Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism after Knee Arthroplasty
J. Leclerc (1996)
Part 10: Analysis
J. Wittes (1991)
Sequential meta-analysis to determine the sufficiency of cumulative knowledge: The case of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders
S. Kuppens (2012)
Aerosolized pentamidine for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The San Francisco community prophylaxis trial.
G. Leoung (1990)
Early methodological developments for clinical trials at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.
M. Halperin (1990)
Rhinosinusitis: Developing guidance for clinical trials.
E. Meltzer (2006)
Group Sequential Design of Phase II and III Trials
J. Bartroff (2013)
The effects of ibuprofen on the physiology and survival of patients with sepsis. The Ibuprofen in Sepsis Study Group.
G. Bernard (1997)
The agonising negative trend in monitoring of clinical trials
D. Demets (1999)
A Simulation Study of a Change-Point Poisson Process Based on Two Well-known Test Statistics
Chih-Hsiang Ho (1995)
Viewpoint on the Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults.
F. Kummerow (1993)
Group sequential distribution-free methods for the analysis of multivariate observations.
J. Q. Su (1992)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar