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Emerging Immune Checkpoints For Cancer Therapy

X. Li, W. Hu, X. Zheng, Chu Zhang, Peng Du, Zhuojun Zheng, Y. Yang, J. Wu, M. Ji, Jingting Jiang, Changping Wu
Published 2015 · Medicine

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Background. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has emerged as promising treatment modality for cancer based on the success of anti-CTLA-4 and -PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies. LAG-3 and TIM-3 are two new immune checkpoints. The aim of this work is to review the role and application of LAG-3 and TIM-3 for cancer immunotherapy. Material and methods. Literatures were searched and collected in Medline/PubMed. Results. LAG-3 is presented as a CD4 homolog type I transmembrane protein which binds MHC class II molecules. LAG-3 negatively regulates T cell proliferation, homeostasis and function. IMP321 is formed of an extracellular portion of human LAG-3 fused to the Fc fraction of human IgG1 and has shown increased T cell responses and tolerability in phase I studies on advanced renal cell cancer. When combined with paclitaxel, IMP321 has exerted immune enhancement and tumor inhibition with no significant IMP321-related adverse events. TIM-3 belongs to the TIM family and mainly negatively regulates Th1 immunity. The TIM-3/galectin-9 pathway contributes to the suppressive tumor microenvironment. TIM-3 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in a variety of cancers. Both LAG-3 and TIM-3 are coexpressed with other immune checkpoints. The application of LAG-3 or TIM-3 does play an important role in anti-tumor responses, and maybe better when combing with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/L1 antibodies. Conclusions. These two immune checkpoints play crucial roles in cancer development and may be used in future clinical practice of cancer therapy.
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