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Engineering Protein Self-assembling In Protein-based Nanomedicines For Drug Delivery And Gene Therapy

N. Ferrer-Miralles, E. Rodríguez-Carmona, J. Corchero, E. Garcia-Fruitós, Esther Vázquez, A. Villaverde
Published 2015 · Computer Science, Medicine

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Abstract Lack of targeting and improper biodistribution are major flaws in current drug-based therapies that prevent reaching high local concentrations of the therapeutic agent. Such weaknesses impose the administration of high drug doses, resulting in undesired side effects, limited efficacy and enhanced production costs. Currently, missing nanosized containers, functionalized for specific cell targeting will be then highly convenient for the controlled delivery of both conventional and innovative drugs. In an attempt to fill this gap, health-focused nanotechnologies have put under screening a growing spectrum of materials as potential components of nanocages, whose properties can be tuned during fabrication. However, most of these materials pose severe biocompatibility concerns. We review in this study how proteins, the most versatile functional macromolecules, can be conveniently exploited and adapted by conventional genetic engineering as efficient building blocks of fully compatible nanoparticles for drug delivery and how selected biological activities can be recruited to mimic viral behavior during infection. Although engineering of protein self-assembling is still excluded from fully rational approaches, the exploitation of protein nano-assemblies occurring in nature and the direct manipulation of protein–protein contacts in bioinspired constructs open intriguing possibilities for further development. These methodologies empower the construction of new and potent vehicles that offer promise as true artificial viruses for efficient and safe nanomedical applications.
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