Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

A Fundamental Study Of The Complex Structure-property-processing Relationships In Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs)

J. Nowers
Published 2007 · Materials Science

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Experimental studies were conducted to qualitatively define the relationships between dilution, temperature, and reaction sequence on the polymerization kinetics of neat monomers, diluted monomers and during interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) formation. The system studied was a thermally initiated cationic polymerization of a difunctional epoxy and the photoinitiated free radical polymerization of a difunctional acrylate. Both reactions are autoaccelerating and quickly become diffusion controlled. The effects of increasing temperature and dilution on the acrylate polymerization rate profiles are similar, leading to reduced polymerization rate and longer polymerization times. The dilution effect on the epoxy polymerization is similar to that of the acrylate. However, unlike the acrylate reaction the epoxy polymerization rate increases strongly with temperature. The pre-existence of one polymer has a significant effect on the polymerization of the second monomer. This effect is larger for the acrylate then for the epoxy polymerization. New kinetic models are needed to capture these complex behaviors. Samples of the same model system were prepared over the range of compositions and by varying the reaction sequence for physical property and morphology studies. The materials were evaluated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photo differential scanning calorimetry and modulated differential scanning calorimetry for conversion. Initial and final sample glass transition temperature was estimated from modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Mechanical testing and rheology tests revealed information on the strength and hardness of the materials. Morphology and phase separation was explored via optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. As expected, all of the physical properties were dependant on composition. Some of the material properties and the morphology were also dependent on reaction sequence. Differences in glass transition temperatures as high as 75 °C were observed at the same composition but formed by different reaction sequence. Correlations can be made between the morphology and material properties with partially phase separated samples exhibiting maximum damping. The experiments indicate that the relationships between phase morphology and physical properties of IPNs are complex and not readily predictable a priori.
This paper references
10.2307/2289810
Nonlinear Regression Analysis and its Applications
R. Kass (1990)
Radiation Curing : Science and Technology, in Topics in Applied Chemistry
S. P. Pappas (1992)
10.1002/APP.10246
DSC study on simultaneous interpenetrating polymer network formation of epoxy resin and unsaturated polyester
M. Ivanković (2002)
10.1016/S0032-3861(03)00296-9
Cure kinetics and morphology of blends of epoxy resin with poly (ether ether ketone) containing pendant tertiary butyl groups
Bejoy Francis (2003)
10.1016/S1359-6446(05)03682-2
Mining chemical structural information from the drug literature.
D. Banville (2006)
10.1016/J.SNB.2005.11.073
Potential of an electronic nose for the early detection and differentiation between Streptomyces in potable water
A. C. Bastos (2006)
10.1002/MAME.200600124
Kinetics of Cationic Photopolymerizations of UV‐Curable Epoxy‐Based SU8‐Negative Photoresists With and Without Silica Nanoparticles
Jung-dae Cho (2006)
Reaction Kinetics in Differential Thermal Analysis
Homer E. KlSSlNGER (1957)
10.1002/APP.20061
Kinetic study by FTIR, TMA, and DSC of the curing of a mixture of DGEBA resin and γ‐butyrolactone catalyzed by ytterbium triflate
X. Ramis (2004)
10.1002/POLA.21285
Cationic copolymerization of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with phthalide or 3,3′‐diphtalide catalyzed by lanthanide triflates
C. Mas (2006)
10.1002/MARC.200600780
Combinatorial Methods and Informatics Provide Insight into Physical Properties and Structure Relationships during IPN Formation
J. Nowers (2007)
Koul an se Osteomyelitis: In Vivo Study
M. Changez (2005)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0126(199912)48:12<1237::AID-PI289>3.0.CO;2-C
Kinetic study on epoxy bisphenol‐A diacrylate IPN formation
Mu-Shih Lin (1999)
ajan, The Application of Principal Component Analysis to nce Journal
palan (2002)
10.6028/jres.070a.043
General Treatment of the Thermogravimetry of Polymers.
J. Flynn (1966)
Dietliker, Photoinitiators for Free Radical Cationic & Anionic Photopolymerisation
J. V. Crivello (1998)
10.1002/app.1984.070291269
Cure mechanism of a modified nitrile epoxy adhesive
T. Chung (1984)
Thermosets, in Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials
R. B. e (1997)
10.1002/pol.1977.230120103
Interpenetrating Polymer Networks and Related Materials
L. Sperling (1981)
10.1002/APP.2041
Effect of blending polyethersulfone on the cure kinetics and physical properties of dicyanate resin
D. Kim (2001)
10.1016/0032-3861(79)90222-2
Kinetics of epoxy cure: a rapid technique for kinetic parameter estimation
M. E. Ryan (1979)
10.1002/PI.2048
Effect of curing order on the curing kinetics and morphology of bisGMA/DGEBA interpenetrating polymer networks
W. Cook (2006)
10.1002/APP.20631
TTT - Cure diagram of an anhydride-cured epoxy system including gelation, vitrification, curing kinetics model and monitoring of the glass transition temperature
H. Teil (2004)
Structure-Property Relationships in Acrylate/Epoxy IPNs: Effect of Reaction Sequence and Composition
J. R. Nowers (2007)
10.1016/S0925-4005(00)00560-8
A highly sensitive NO2-selective optode membrane
Tomas Nezel (2000)
Sbirrazzuoli, Isoconversional Method to Explore the Mechanism and Ki Multi-Step Epoxy Cures
S. Vyazovkin (1999)
10.1137/1.9781611971972
The Mathematics Of Diffusion
J. Crank (1956)
10.1002/KIN.10090
Curing kinetics of boron‐containing phenol–formaldehyde resin formed from paraformaldehyde
Y. Liu (2002)
10.1002/JBM.A.10106
Synthesis and physicochemical analysis of interpenetrating networks containing modified gelatin and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate.
Jeanine A Burmania (2003)
Some Problems Concerning the Evaluation of the Acti ation Energy fr Non-Isothermal Data for Reactions with Activation Parameters Dependent on the Degree of Conversion
P. Budrugeac (2000)
10.1007/S11661-006-1034-6
Extracting information from the molten salt database
S. Gadžurić (2006)
10.1002/app.1987.070330525
Autocatalytic cure kinetics from DSC measurements: Zero initial cure rate
M. Keenan (1987)
10.1021/ba-1994-0239.ch001
Interpenetrating Polymer Networks: An Overview
R. B. Fox (1990)
10.1016/J.TCA.2003.10.013
Is the science of thermal analysis kinetics based on solid foundations?: A literature appraisal
A. K. Galwey (2004)
10.1246/bcsj.38.1881
A New Method of Analyzing Thermogravimetric Data
T. Ozawa (1965)
10.1016/S0032-3861(01)00695-4
Comparative DSC kinetics of the reaction of DGEBA with aromatic diamines. II. Isothermal kinetic study of the reaction of DGEBA with m-phenylene diamine
V. L. Zvetkov (2002)
10.1016/0032-3861(94)90129-5
Reaction behaviour and kinetic constants for photopolymerizations of multi(meth)acrylate monomers
K. Anseth (1994)
10.1002/POLA.20711
Improved thermosets obtained from cycloaliphatic epoxy resins and γ‐butyrolactone with lanthanide triflates as initiators. I. Study of curing by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared
C. Mas (2005)
Aït-Kadi, Model-Free Kinetics: Curing Behavior of Phenol Formaldehyde Resins by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
G. He (2003)
10.1016/S0032-3861(02)00745-0
Vitrification and dielectric relaxation during the isothermal curing of an epoxy–amine resin
S. Montserrat (2003)
Thermal Analysis & Rheology DIFFERENTIAL PHOTOCALORIMETRY: ADVANCEMENTS FOR THE ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FREE RADICAL, CATIONIC AND HYBRID PHOTOPOLYMERS
S. R. Sauerbrunn (1997)
10.1002/(SICI)1099-1581(199604)7:4<197::AID-PAT514>3.0.CO;2-4
The current status of interpenetrating polymer networks
L. Sperling (1996)
Thermosets, in Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials
R. B. Prime (1997)
10.1002/app.1986.070320406
Reliability of methods for determination of kinetic parameters from thermogravimetry and DSC measurements
Z. S. Petrović (1986)
10.1023/A:1010167626551
Kinetic Analysis Using Multivariate Non-linear Regression. I. Basic concepts
J. Opfermann (2000)
10.1002/APP.1942
Molecular interactions in poly(methacrylic acid)/poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) interpenetrating polymer networks
J. Zhang (2001)
10.1016/S0928-4931(00)00156-9
Novel gas sensor using polymer-film-coated quartz resonator for environmental monitoring
H. Nanto (2000)
10.1002/pol.1969.110070109
New methods for evaluating kinetic parameters from thermal analysis data
H. L. Friedman (1969)
10.1016/J.POLYMER.2005.12.030
The effect of interpenetrating polymer network formation on polymerization kinetics in an epoxy‐acrylate system
J. Nowers (2006)
10.1016/J.IJTHERMALSCI.2005.04.004
Experimental and modelling study of the radiative curing of a polyester-based coating
L. Véchot (2006)
Flammersheim, Model-Free Analysis of Thermoanalytical Data-Advantages and Limitations
J. Opfermann (2002)
10.1016/J.CARBPOL.2006.01.013
Semi-interpenetrating polymer network microspheres of gelatin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for controlled release of ketorolac tromethamine
A. P. Rokhade (2006)
10.1002/1439-2054(20010301)286:3<143::AID-MAME143>3.0.CO;2-Z
Investigation of epoxide curing reactions by differential scanning calorimetry - formal kinetic evaluation
Hans-Jürgen Flammersheim (2001)
10.1002/KIN.10068
Some confusion concerning integral isoconversional methods that may result from the paper by Budrugeac and Segal Some methodological problems concerning nonisothermal kinetic analysis of heterogeneous solid-gas reactions
S. Vyazovkin (2002)
10.1021/MA021675K
Photopolymerization Kinetics of Methacrylate Dental Resins
S. H. Dickens (2003)
10.1016/0032-3861(92)90882-W
Thermal aspects of the kinetics of dimethacrylate photopolymerization
W. Cook (1992)
Analysis of Diabetic Patient's Breath with Conducting and Actuators B: Chemical
Yu (2005)
10.1002/pen.760290506
Isothermal and temperature programmed kinetic studies of thermosets
V. M. González-Romero (1989)
10.1007/S10973-005-7276-5
Cationic crosslinking of solid dgeba resins with ytterbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate as initiator
S. García (2006)
10.1016/J.ELECTACTA.2004.05.010
Voltammetric sensor array based on conducting polymer-modified electrodes for the discrimination of liquids
Á. Arrieta (2004)
10.1002/pc.10270
Kinetic studies of thermoset cure reactions: A review
Azizeh-Mitra Yousefi (1997)
Interpen ting Polymer Network (IPN) Materials, in Polymer Networks, Principles of Their Format n, Structure and Properties
H. L. Frisch (1998)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0126(199802)45:2<133::AID-PI969>3.0.CO;2-F
The use of UV irradiation in polymerization
C. Decker (1998)
10.1021/ma0619839
Deconvoluting the impact of intermolecular and intramolecular interactions on the polymerization kinetics of ultrarapid mono(meth)acrylates
Harini Kilambi (2007)
10.1002/app.1994.070510424
Determination of autocatalytic kinetic model parameters describing thermoset cure
J. M. Kenny (1994)
10.1016/J.BBRC.2004.07.116
Principle component analysis in F/10 and G/11 xylanase.
Liangwei Liu (2004)
10.1002/APP.1574
Application of isothermal and model‐free isoconversional modes in DSC measurement for the curing process of the PU system
S. Li (2001)
10.1016/j.ddtec.2004.08.002
The role of bioinformatics in target validation.
P. A. Whittaker (2004)
10.1007/BF01911411
Kinetic analysis of derivative curves in thermal analysis
T. Ozawa (1970)
Ytterbium(III) Trifluoromethanesulfonate as Initiator
S. J. Garcia (2006)
10.1016/0032-3861(96)87280-6
Thermal analysis during the formation of polyurethane and vinyl ester resin interpenetrating polymer networks
L. Fan (1996)
10.1002/9780470140475.CH5
Informatics Methods for Combinatorial Materials Science
C. Suh (2006)
10.1021/MA061332C
Photopolymerization of acid containing monomers: Real-time monitoring of polymerization rates
H. Zhou (2006)
10.1002/JBM.A.30179
Analysis of poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate macromer polymerization within a multicomponent semi-interpenetrating polymer network system.
R. Witte (2004)
10.1016/J.SURFCOAT.2005.08.097
Materials informatics for the design of novel coatings
L. Zhao (2005)
10.1021/MA020628P
Effect of Curing Sequence on the Photopolymerization and Thermal Curing Kinetics of Dimethacrylate/Epoxy Interpenetrating Polymer Networks
K. Dean (2002)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar