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Trail Making Test: Normative Data For the Latin American Spanish Speaking Adult Population.

J.C. Arango-Lasprilla, Diego Rivera, Alejandro Martín Vargas Aguayo, Werner Rodriguez, Maria Teresa Gonzalez Garza, C P Saracho, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Alvaro E. Aliaga, Gunter Weiler, Manuel Ordóñez Luna, Mario Longoni, N Ocampo-Barba, Javier Galarza-Del-Angel, Ivan S Panyavin, Aida Crespo Guerra, Luis Aguilar Esenarro, P García de la Cadena, Claudia Martinez, Paul B Perrin
Published 2015 · Medicine, Psychology
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OBJECTIVE To generate normative data on the Trail Making Test (TMT) across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. METHOD The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Paraguay, Honduras, Chile, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Bolivia. Each subject was administered the TMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. RESULTS The final multiple linear regression models for the TMT-A explained 23- 50% of the variance, and the final multiple linear models for the TMT-B explained 22- 49% of the variance. Although there were gender differences on the TMT in Mexico, Peru, Paraguay, and Honduras, only Honduras had an effect size greater than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were generated for the Trail Making Test-A, but not B, in this country. CONCLUSIONS The present study is the first to create norms for the TMT in Latin America. As a result, this study will have important implications for the practice of neuropsychology in the future.
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