← Back to Search
Systematic Review And Evaluation Of Methods Of Assessing Urinary Incontinence.
J. L. Martin, K. Williams, K. Abrams, D. Turner, A. Sutton, C. Chapple, R. P. Assassa, C. Shaw, F. Cheater
Published 2006 · Medicine
Save to my Library
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
OBJECTIVES To identify and synthesise studies of diagnostic processes of urinary incontinence and to construct an economic model to examine the cost-effectiveness of simple, commonly used primary care tests. DATA SOURCES The electronic databases MEDLINE (1966--2002), CINAHL (1982--2002) and EMBASE (1980--2002). REVIEW METHODS Studies were selected and assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Studies (QUADAS) tool. Studies that reported the results of applying the same diagnostic procedure using the same threshold value (cut-off) were pooled using a random effects meta-analysis model to produce pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio together with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS In total, 6009 papers were identified from the literature search, of which 129 were deemed relevant for inclusion in the review, and these papers compared two or more diagnostic techniques. The gold-standard diagnostic test for urinary incontinence with which each reference test was compared was multichannel urodynamics. In general, reporting in the primary studies was poor; there was a lack of literature in the key clinical areas and minimal literature dealing with diagnosis in men. Only a limited number of studies could be combined or synthesised, providing the following results when compared with multichannel urodynamics. A clinical history for diagnosing urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) in women was found to have a sensitivity of 0.92 and specificity of 0.56 and for detrusor overactivity (DO) a sensitivity of 0.61 and specificity of 0.87. For validated scales, question 3 of the Urogenital Distress Inventory was found to have a sensitivity of 0.88 and specificity of 0.60. Seven studies compared a pad test with multichannel urodynamics; however, four different pad tests were studied and therefore it was difficult to draw any conclusions about diagnostic accuracy. Of the four studies comparing urinary diary with multichannel urodynamics, only one presented data in a format that allowed sensitivity and specificity to be calculated. Their reported values of 0.88 and 0.83 suggest that a urinary diary may be effective in the diagnosis of DO in women. Examination of the incremental cost-effectiveness of three primary care tests used in addition to history found that the diary had the lowest cost-effectiveness ratio of between pound 35 and pound 77 per extra unit of effectiveness (or case diagnosed). Imaging by ultrasound to determine leakage was found to be effective in the diagnosis of USI in women, with a sensitivity of 0.94 and specificity of 0.83. CONCLUSIONS This is the first systematic review of methods for diagnosing urinary incontinence. As reporting of the primary studies was poor, clinical interpretation was often difficult because few studies could be synthesised and conclusions made. The report found that a large proportion of women with USI can be correctly diagnosed in primary care from clinical history alone. On the basis of diagnosis the diary appears to be the most cost-effective of the three primary care tests (diary, pad test and validated scales) used in addition to clinical history. Ultrasound imaging may offer a valuable alternative to urodynamic investigation. The clinical stress test is effective in the diagnosis of USI. Adaptation of such a test so that it could be performed in primary care with a naturally filled bladder may prove clinically useful. If a patient is to undergo an invasive urodynamic procedure, multichannel urodynamics is likely to give the most accurate result in a secondary care setting. There is a dearth of literature on the diagnosis of urinary incontinence in men, with no studies meeting the study criteria for data extraction in the diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction. There is a need for large-scale, high-quality primary studies evaluating the use of a number of diagnostic methods in a primary care setting to be undertaken so that the results of this systematic review can be verified or not. Such studies should include not only an assessment of clinical effectiveness, in this case diagnostic accuracy, but also an assessment of costs and quality of life/satisfaction to inform future health policy decisions. Studies carried out should be reported to a better standard. The recommendations of the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) initiative should be followed to ensure the accuracy and completeness of reporting design and results.
This paper references
Introital sonography and urodynamic examination in stress urinary incontinence: anatomic and functional relationships
M Moretti (1998)
The effect of cholinergic enhancement during filling cystometry: can edrophonium chloride be used as a provocative test for overactive bladder?
O. Yossepowitch (2001)
Use of a Portable Ultrasound Device To Measure Post‐Void Residual Volume Among Incontinent Nursing Home Residents
J. Ouslander (1994)
The significance of the stop test in female urinary incontinence.
L. Frigerio (1981)
Telemetric urodynamic investigations in female incontinence.
J. Thueroff (1981)
Are cystometric and cystoscopic examinations of any value for disabled incontinent elderly?
I. Vehkalahti (1986)
Urodynamic investigation in a district general hospital.
A. D. De Bolla (1983)
Handling uncertainty when performing economic evaluation of healthcare interventions.
A. Briggs (1999)
Predictive value of urethroscopy as compared to urodynamics in the diagnosis of genuine stress incontinence.
Scotti Rj (1990)
A Digital Test for Pelvic Muscle Strength in Women with Urinary Incontinence
C. Brink (1994)
Is handsearching still worthwhile? Results of a Cochrane methodology review
S Hopewell (2003)
Incontinence History as a Predictor of Detrusor Stability
P. Sand (1988)
Characteristics of urinary incontinence in elderly patients studied by 24-hour monitoring and urodynamic testing.
D. Griffiths (1992)
Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative
P. Bossuyt (2003)
Urodynamics in women with stress incontinence before and after surgery.
O. Lalos (1993)
The Q‐Tip Test: Standardization of the Technique and Its Interpretation in Women With Urinary Incontinence
M. Karram (1988)
Urodynamic tests for female geriatric urinary incontinence.
A. Diokno (1990)
Anatomical assessment of the bladder outlet and proximal urethra using ultrasound and videocystourethrography
H. P. Dietz (2005)
Urethral pressure profile in female stress incontinence.
S. Awad (1978)
Simple standing incremental cystometry as a screening method for detrusor instability
P. Sand (2005)
Is the bladder "an unreliable witness" in elderly males with persistent lower urinary tract symptoms?
Y. Ding (1997)
The Reliability of Performing a Screening Cystometrogram Using a Fetal Monitoring Device for the Detection of Detrusor Instability
S. Swift (1997)
Handwashing in the cystometric evaluation of detrusor instability
R. Mayer (1991)
Reliability of pelvic floor muscle strength measurement in elderly incontinent women
K. Kerschan-Schindl (2002)
Simple versus multichannel cystometry in the evaluation of bladder function in an incontinent geriatric population.
J. Ouslander (1988)
Direction and impact of language bias in meta-analyses of controlled trials: empirical study.
P. Jüni (2002)
Role of urethrocystoscopy in the evaluation of refractory idiopathic detrusor instability.
A. Groutz (2001)
P. McInerney (1991)
Incontinence in the elderly: objective demonstration and quantitative assessment.
D. Griffiths (1991)
Acceleration of flow rate as a screening test for detrusor instability in women with stress incontinence.
A. Cucchi (1990)
The urinary incontinence score in the diagnosis of female urinary incontinence
O. Ishiko (2000)
Urinary incontinence symptom scores and urodynamic diagnoses
M. Fitzgerald (2002)
Do static cystourethrograms have a role in the investigation of female incontinence?
H. Drutz (1978)
Intraurethral ultrasound: diagnostic evaluation of the striated urethral sphincter in incontinent females
F. Frauscher (1998)
Bead-chain cystourethrogram: an evaluation.
J. A. Fantl (1981)
Predicting urodynamic dysfunction from clinical features in incontinent elderly women.
T. Kong (1990)
Computer‐Assisted Virtual Urethral Pressure Profile in the Assessment of Female Genuine Stress Incontinence
M. Wolters (2002)
Relationship Between Patient Reports of Urinary Incontinence Symptoms and Quality of Life Measures
D. Robinson (1998)
Supine urethroscopic and standing cystometry as screening methods for the detection of detrusor instability.
P. Sand (1987)
Predictive Values of Diagnostic Tests in the Evaluation of Female Urinary Stress Incontinence
W. Fischer‐Rasmussen (1986)
Don't ask, don't tell. Breaking the silence surrounding female urinary incontinence.
S. Peters (1997)
Evaluation of Current Urodynamic Testing Methods in the Diagnosis of Genuine Stress Incontinence
S. Swift (1995)
A model for predicting motor urge urinary incontinence.
M. Gray (2001)
Natural volume handwashing urethrocystometry: a physiological technique for the objective diagnosis of the unstable detrusor.
P. Petros (1993)
Urinary incontinence in the elderly female: prediction in diagnosis and outcome of management.
H. Eastwood (1984)
Vaginal ultrasound in the diagnosis of stress incontinence: a prospective comparison to urodynamic investigations
MJ Quinn (1989)
Simple screening for urinary incontinence in the elderly: comparison of simple and multichannel cystometry.
D. Fonda (1993)
Evaluation of the home pad test in the investigation of female urinary incontinence
E. Versi (1996)
Utility of the American Urological Association symptom index in the diagnosis of women with voiding dysfunction
D. Rivas (2004)
Correlations between dynamic urethral profilometry and perivaginal pelvic muscle activity
R. Mayer (1994)
Screening for common problems in ambulatory elderly: clinical confirmation of a screening instrument.
A. Moore (1996)
Predictive value of urethroscopy as compared to urodynamics in the diagnosis of genuine stress incontinence.
R. J. Scotti (1990)
Frequency/volume chart: the basic tool for investigating urinary symptoms.
H. Siltberg (1997)
The etiology of post-radical prostatectomy incontinence and correlation of symptoms with urodynamic findings.
M. Ficazzola (1998)
Ultrasonic evaluation of urethrovesical junction in women with stress urinary incontinence
A. Bergman (1988)
Urodynamics: continuous monitoring.
N. Bhatia (1982)
Usefulness of urodynamic investigations in female incontinence.
X. De Muylder (1992)
Value of the cough pressure profile in the evaluation of patients with stress incontinence.
D. A. Richardson (1986)
Cough‐induced leak‐point pressure ‐ a valid measure for assessing treatment in women with stress incontinence
H. Siltberg (1998)
The Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire: development and psychometric testing.
S. Jackson (1996)
Clinical versus urodynamic diagnosis in an incontinent geriatric female population.
J. Ouslander (1987)
Differential diagnosis of detrusor instability and stress‐incontinence by patient history: The Gaudenz‐Incontinence‐Questionnaire revisited
G. Haeusler (1995)
24‐Hour Home Par Weighing Test Versus 1‐Hour Ward Test In The Assessment Of Mild Stress Incontinence
G. Lose (1989)
Voiding dysfunction and Parkinson's disease: urodynamic abnormalities and urinary symptoms.
I. Araki (2000)
Urinary incontinence: correlation of history and brief office evaluation with multichannel urodynamic testing.
R. Summitt (1992)
Accuracy of survey questions for geriatric urinary incontinence.
R. Kirschner-Hermanns (1998)
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SYMPTOMS AND OBJECTIVE URODYNAMIC FINDINGS IN 214 INCONTINENT WOMEN
T. Cantor (1980)
Stress incontinence: clinical identification and validation of defining characteristics.
A. Woodtli (1995)
One‐hour pad‐weighing test for objective assessment of female urinary incontinence
L. Jorgensen (1987)
An interactive symposium to determine criteria for evaluating new minimally invasive treatments for SUI
C Chapple (2003)
Perineal pad weighing versus videographic analysis in genuine stress incontinence.
E. Versi (1986)
Short pad test: Standardisation of method and comparison with 1‐hour test
C. Mayne (1988)
The pre- and postsurgical nursing of women with stress incontinence.
A. Berglund (1996)
The development and evaluation of an incontinence screening questionnaire for female primary care
W. Gunthorpe (2000)
A comparison of maximum cystometric bladder capacity with maximum environmental voided volumes
E. Yoon (2005)
A comparison of ambulatory and conventional urodynamic studies in men with borderline outlet obstruction
Noninvasive diagnosis of the patient with complex incontinence.
N. Resnick (1990)
Measurement of Postvoid Residual Urine with Portable Transabdominal Bladder Ultrasound Scanner and Urethral Catheterization
P. Goode (2000)
The Empty Supine Stress Test as a Predictor of Intrinsic Urethral Sphincter Dysfunction
R. Lobel (1996)
Correlation of the AUA symptom index with urodynamics in patients with suspected benign prostatic hyperplasia
V. Nitti (1994)
Reliability of the urethral closure pressure profile during stress in the diagnosis of genuine stress incontinence.
E. Hanzal (1991)
Extramural ambulatory urodynamic monitoring during natural filling and normal daily activities: evaluation of 100 patients.
E. S. C. van Waalwijk van Doorn (1991)
Non-invasive diagnosis of bladder instability using the Bladder Instability Discriminant Index (BIDI).
O. Contreras Ortiz (1993)
Use of stresscath for diagnosing stress incontinence.
R. M. Niecestro (1992)
Detrusor Instability Score in the Evaluation of Stress Urinary Incontinence
A. Kauppila (1982)
The Value of Clinical Symptoms in the Diagnosis of Urinary Incontinence in the Female
A. Korda (1987)
Validity study of the severity index, a simple measure of urinary incontinence in women
J. Hanley (2001)
Role of cystourethrography in the preoperative evaluation of stress urinary incontinence in women.
A. Bergman (1988)
An analysis of rapid pad testing and the history for the diagnosis of stress incontinence
P. E. Papa Petros (1992)
Comparison of self-reported voided volume with cystometric bladder capacity.
A. Diokno (1987)
Language bias in randomised controlled trials published in English and German
M. Egger (1997)
Trigonal sensitivity testing in women.
M. Frazer (1989)
Ambulatory urodynamics in urge incontinence evaluation
G. Davila (2004)
Bead-chain cystourethrogram: an evaluation.
Fantl Ja (1981)
Female urinary incontinence: comparative value of history and urodynamic investigations.
X. Le Coutour (1990)
Detrusor instability in men: correlation of lower urinary tract symptoms with urodynamic findings.
M. Hyman (2001)
Urinary Incontinence in Elderly Women: Urodynamic Evaluation
A. Diokno (1987)
A prospective study examining the association between the symptoms of anxiety and depression and severity of urinary incontinence.
A. Watson (2000)
Vesical instability: urodynamic parameters by microtip transducer catheters.
Hebert Db (1982)
Structural basis of geriatric voiding dysfunction. VI. Validation and update of diagnostic criteria in 71 detrusor biopsies.
A. Elbadawi (1997)
Maximal electrical stimulation of patients with frequency, urgency and urge incontinence: Report of 38 cases
M. Zöllner-Nielsen (1992)
Q-Tip test in female urinary incontinence.
F. Montz (1986)
Role of the Q-tip test in evaluating stress urinary incontinence.
Antonina Bergman (1987)
Associations among urodynamic findings and symptoms in women enrolled in the Interstitial Cystitis Data Base (ICDB) Study.
A. Kirkemo (1997)
Simple test of pelvic muscle contraction during pelvic examination: Correlation to surface electromyography
L. Romanzi (1999)
The diagnostic value of history, physical examination, and the Q-tip cotton swab test in women with urinary incontinence.
M. D. Walters (1988)
Comparison of different methods for quantification of urinary leakage in incontinent women
L. Mouritsen (1989)
Discriminant analysis of urethral pressure profilometry data for the diagnosis of genuine stress incontinence
E. Versi (1990)
Reliability of the patient's history in the diagnosis of urinary incontinence
A. Bergman (1990)
Ambulatory monitoring and electronic measurement of urinary leakage in the diagnosis of detrusor instability and incontinence.
R. J. Webb (1991)
Comparison of bladder neck mobility in patients with genuine stress incontinence and continent women by perineal sonography
NH Yeh (1996)
Pelvic floor muscle surface electromyography. Reliability and clinical predictive validity.
H. I. Glazer (1999)
Which women with stress incontinence require urodynamic evaluation?
A. Weidner (2001)
Can we afford to take short cuts in the management of stress urinary incontinence? Singapore Med J 1993;34:121–4
RK Ng (1993)
Structural basis of geriatric voiding dysfunction. VII. Prospective ultrastructural/urodynamic evaluation of its natural evolution.
A. Elbadawi (1997)
Supine empty stress test as a predictor of low valsalva leak point pressure
M. McLennan (1998)
Cost-effectiveness of urodynamic testing before surgery for women with pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence.
A. Weber (2000)
The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire and the Urogenital Distress Inventory: a revisit of their validity in women without a urodynamic diagnosis.
M. A. Harvey (2001)
Validity of a scored urological history in detecting detrusor instability in female urinary incontinence
A. Klovning (1996)
Standard and extramural ambulatory urodynamic investigation for the diagnosis of detrusor instability‐correlated incontinence and micturition disorders
D. Porru (1994)
The Use of the Bladder Neck Support Prosthesis in Combined Genuine Stress Incontinence and Detrusor Instability
K.H. Moored (1997)
Don’t ask, don’t tell. Breaking the silence surrounding female urinary incontinence [review
S. Peters (1997)
No relationship between subjective assessment of urinary incontinence and pad test weight gain in a random population sample of menopausal women.
A. Ryhammer (1998)
Scored urological history and urethrocystometry in the differential diagnosis of female urinary incontinence.
E. Kujansuu (1982)
Urodynamic assessment and lateral urethrocystography: A comparison of two diagnostic procedures for female urinary incontinence
E. Grischke (1991)
Distress associated with urinary incontinence, as measured by a visual analogue scale.
A. Vinsnes (1991)
Use of fetal cardiotocographic monitor in the evaluation of urinary incontinence.
A. Bergman (1988)
The international prostate symptom score in both sexes: A urodynamics‐based comparison
S. Madersbacher (1999)
Development, implementation and evaluation of a new nurse-led continence service: a pilot study.
K. Williams (2000)
Vesical Instability: Urodynamic Parameters by Microtip Transducer Catheters
D. Hebert (1982)
Evaluation of reliability of history in women complaining of urinary stress incontinence.
M. Glezerman (1986)
Stress incontinence and urethral obstruction in women: value of uroflowmetry and voiding urethrography.
J. Susset (1974)
Urinary incontinence in old age: helping the general practitioner to make a diagnosis.
J. Brocklehurst (1990)
A comparison between experienced and objectively demonstrated urinary leakage in 85-year old men and women.
L. Hellström (1991)
The maximum urethral closure pressure and the Valsalva leak point pressure in the diagnosis of intrinsic sphincter deficiency: preliminary results
C Pajoncini (1999)
Cough urethrocystography: the best radiological evaluation of female stress urinary incontinence?
M. Varpula (1989)
Relative usefulness of physical examination, urodynamics and roentgenography in the diagnosis of urinary stress incontinence.
Z. Khan (1988)
The role of urodynamic assessment in the diagnosis of lower urinary tract disorders
B. Clarke (2007)
Detection of urethral incompetence. Erect studies using the fluid-bridge test.
J. Sutherst (1981)
Q‐Tip Test: A Study of Continent and Incontinent Women
M. D. Walters (1987)
Algorithmic method for assessing urinary incontinence in elderly women.
P. Hilton (1981)
DETECTION OF URINARY INCONTINENCE
H. Robinson (1981)
Pure stress leakage symptomatology: is it safe to discount detrusor instability?
M. James (1999)
Urinary stress incontinence. A urodynamic and quantitative electromyographic study of the perineal muscles
Ø. Aanestad (1999)
Detrusor activity index: quantification of detrusor overactivity by ambulatory monitoring.
E. S. C. van Waalwijk van Doorn (1997)
The symptomatic characterization of patients with detrusor instability and those with genuine stress incontinence
I. Ramsay (2004)
Predictability of urodynamic findings based on the Urogenital Distress Inventory-6 questionnaire.
G. Lemack (1999)
Evaluation of urodynamics for the diagnosis of female stress urinary incontinence
HJ Yu (1988)
Translabial color Doppler for imaging in urogynecology: a preliminary report
H. Dietz (1999)
Misdiagnosis of urinary incontinence in nursing home women: Prevalence and a proposed solution
N. Resnick (1996)
Urethral pressures: analysis of transmission pressure ratios.
E. Versi (1991)
Ambulatory urodynamics of female soldiers.
G. Davis (1998)
On the lack of correlation between self-report and urine loss measured with standing provocation test in older stress-incontinent women.
J. Miller (1999)
Validation of cough‐induced leak point pressure measurement in the evaluation of pharmacological treatment of stress incontinence
H. Siltberg (1999)
The supine stress test: a simple method to detect intrinsic urethral sphincter dysfunction.
T. Hsu (1999)
Update evaluation of benign prostatic hyperplasia: when should we offer prostatectomy?
B. Çetinel (1994)
Comparison of single and multichannel cystometry in diagnosing bladder instability.
J. Sutherst (1984)
Urge incontinence history is an accurate predictor of urge incontinence
P. Petros (1992)
Can Uroflowmetry Patterns in Women be Reliably Interpreted?
T.-P. Chou (2000)
Measurement of total urethral compliance in females with stress incontinence
J. Walter (1993)
Voiding dysfunction following transurethral resection of the prostate: symptoms and urodynamic findings.
V. Nitti (1997)
Urinary Incontinence Verification in Elderly Men
S. Robb (1985)
Comparison between urinary diaries completed with and without intensive patient instructions
D. Robinson (1996)
A simple patient-administered test for objective quantitation of the symptom of urinary incontinence.
A. Victor (1987)
A systematic review and evaluation of the use of tumour markers in paediatric oncology: Ewing's sarcoma and neuroblastoma.
R. Riley (2003)
Long-term results of colpocystourethropexy for persistent or recurrent stress urinary incontinence.
K. Nitahara (1999)
One‐hour ward test vs. 24‐hour home pad weighing test in the diagnosis of urinary incontinence
P. Thind (1991)
Value of the patient's case history in diagnosing urinary incontinence in general practice.
A. L. Lagro-Janssen (1991)
The ice-water test in detrusor hyper-reflexia and bladder instability.
T. Petersen (1997)
Observations in Micturating Cystourethrography 1
D. Rose (1983)
Clinical correlation of urodynamic testing in patients with urinary incontinence
Thomas J. Sunshine (1989)
The role of the frequency‐volume chart in the differential diagnostic of female urinary incontinence
D. Fink (1999)
Conventional and ambulatory urodynamic findings in women with symptoms suggestive of bladder overactivity.
S. Radley (2001)
A severity index for epidemiological surveys of female urinary incontinence: Comparison with 48‐hour pad‐weighing tests
H. Sandvik (2000)
Applicability of perineal sonography in anatomical evaluation of bladder neck in women with and without genuine stress incontinence
Gin-Den Chen (1997)
Clinical predictors of urinary incontinence in women.
G. Cundiff (1997)
Evaluation of the home pad test for quantifying incontinence.
P. Wilson (1989)
Urodynamic evaluation of patients after the Camey operation.
B. Goldwasser (1987)
Prospective assessment of incontinence after radical retropubic prostatectomy: objective and subjective analysis.
S. Donnellan (1997)
Urodynamic analysis of urinary incontinence symptoms in women.
H. Drutz (1979)
Urinary incontinence and genital prolapse in the female: clinical, urodynamic and radiological examinations
S. Walter (1982)
Involuntary detrusor contractions: Correlation of urodynamic data to clinical categories
L. Romanzi (2001)
The value of bladder filling in the clinical detection of urine loss and selection of patients for urodynamic testing
N. Kadar (1988)
The effect of vesical volume on valsalva leak-point pressures in women with genuine stress urinary incontinence
J. P. Theofrastous (1996)
The frequency/volume chart as a differential diagnostic tool in female urinary incontinence
G. Larsson (2004)
Objective quantification of stress urinary incontinence: A short, reproducible, provocative pad‐test
I. Hahn (1991)
Bother arising from urinary frequency in women
M. Fitzgerald (2002)
A comparative study of perineal ultrasound scanning and urethrocystography in patients with genuine stress incontinence
H. Koelbl (2004)
This paper is referenced by
Urinary Incontinence Is Associated With Physical Performance Decline in Community-Dwelling Older Women: Results From the International Mobility in Aging Study
Luana Caroline de Assunção Cortez Corrêa (2018)
Diagnostik und Therapie von Blasenfunktionsstörungen bei Personen mit Diabetes mellitus
J. Pannek (2009)
Different combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosis: systematic review and network meta-analysis
B. H. Stegeman (2013)
NHG-standaard incontinentie voor urine
A. Lagro-Janssen (2009)
Cost-effectiveness of computerized cognitive-behavioural therapy for the treatment of depression in primary care: findings from the Randomised Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Acceptability of Computerised Therapy (REEACT) trial.
A. Duarte (2017)
Lois H. Thomas (2014)
The value of urodynamics prior to surgery for stress urinary incontinence
S. V. Leijsen (2012)
A review of the psychometric performance of the EQ-5D in people with urinary incontinence
S. Davis (2013)
Lower bowel function in urinary incontinent women, urinary continent women and in controls
M. Wyndaele (2011)
Shortened peginterferon and ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C.
D. Hartwell (2012)
Evaluation of Promoter Hypermethylation Detection in Body Fluids as a Screening/Diagnosis Tool for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
A. Carvalho (2008)
Comparison of Methods to Identify Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women With Pelvic Organ Prolapse
L. Martín (2021)
Exploring associations between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and gastrointestinal (GI) problems in women: a study in women with urological and GI problems vs a control population
M. Wyndaele (2015)
Self-Management of Urinary Incontinence Using eHealth : clinically relevant improvement, treatment effect and factors associated with success
E. Nyström (2018)
Identifying Continence OptioNs after Stroke (ICONS):an evidence synthesis, case study and exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial of the introduction of a systematic voiding programme for patients with urinary incontinence after stroke in secondary care
L. Thomas (2015)
Cognitive–behavioural therapy for health anxiety in a genitourinary medicine clinic: randomised controlled trial
H. Seivewright (2008)
Criterios de derivación en incontinencia urinaria para atención primaria
F. J. Bermúdez (2013)
Urinary symptoms, quality of life, and patient satisfaction in genetic and sporadic hereditary spastic paraplegia
Susanne A. Schneider (2018)
Joined-up thinking: enthusing frontline clinicians.
S. Eustice (2008)
Diagnostik der Harninkontinenz und des uterovaginalen Prolapses
E. Hanzal (2008)
Measuring the benefits of treatment for psychosis: validity and responsiveness of the EQ–5D
G. Barton (2009)
Time efficiency of a web-based questionnaire in urogynecology: a randomized study
Selina Posthuma (2015)
Authors’ reply to Carradice
M.-C. Nogaro (2012)
Efficacy and safety of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in postmenopausal women with overactive bladder with urge urinary incontinence.
S. Green (2006)
Does pre-operative urodynamics lead to better outcomes in management of urinary incontinence in women? A linked systematic review and meta-analysis.
Kar Yee Lor (2019)
Prognostic Models: A Methodological Framework and Review of Models for Breast Cancer
D. Altman (2009)
Probability, predictors, and prognosis of posttransplantation glomerulonephritis.
Worawon Chailimpamontree (2009)
A Qualitative Study Investigating the Continued Adoption of Breaking Free Online Across a National Substance Misuse Organisation: Theoretical Conceptualisation of Staff Perceptions
Stephanie Dugdale (2016)
Feasibility of fluid volume conductance to assess bladder volume
Bradley C. Gill (2008)
Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity with SAS PROC GLIMMIX.
J. Menke (2010)
A questionnaire-based qualitative study of therapist views on computerized CBT
J. Newton (2016)
Diagnostic performance of chromoendoscopy and narrow band imaging for colonic neoplasms: a meta‐analysis
Y. Kobayashi (2012)See more