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Impact Of Increased Oxidative Stress On Cardiovascular Diseases In Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Florentina Duică, Cezara Alina Dănilă, Andreea Elena Boboc, Panagiotis Antoniadis, Carmen Elena Condrat, Sebastian Onciul, Nicolae Suciu, Sanda Maria Creţoiu, Valentin Nicolae Varlas, Dragoş Creţoiu

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disorder that affects around 5% to 10% of women of childbearing age worldwide, making it the most common source of anovulatory infertility. PCOS is defined by increased levels of androgens, abnormal ovulation, irregular menstrual cycles, and polycystic ovarian morphology in one or both ovaries. Women suffering from this condition have also been shown to frequently associate certain cardiovascular comorbidities, including obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and vascular disease. These factors gradually lead to endothelial dysfunction and coronary artery calcification, thus posing an increased risk for adverse cardiac events. Traditional markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine, along with more novel ones, specifically microRNAs (miRNAs), can accurately signal the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in PCOS women. Furthermore, studies have also reported that increased oxidative stress (OS) coupled with poor antioxidant status significantly add to the increased cardiovascular risk among these patients. OS additionally contributes to the modified ovarian steroidogenesis, consequently leading to hyperandrogenism and infertility. The present review is therefore aimed not only at bringing together the most significant information regarding the role of oxidative stress in promoting CVD among PCOS patients, but also at highlighting the need for determining the efficiency of antioxidant therapy in these patients.