Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Motor Imagery Ability In Stroke Patients: The Relationship Between Implicit And Explicit Motor Imagery Measures

S. D. de Vries, M. Tepper, W. Feenstra, Hanneke Oosterveld, A. Boonstra, Bert Otten
Published 2013 · Psychology, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
There is little consensus on how motor imagery ability should be measured in stroke patients. In particular it is unclear how two methods tapping different aspects of the motor imagery process relate to each other. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between implicit and explicit motor imagery ability by comparing performance of stroke patients and controls on a motor imagery questionnaire and a hand laterality judgment task (HLJT). Sixteen ischemic stroke patients (36 ± 13 weeks post-stroke) and 16 controls, matched by age (51 ± 10 years), gender (7 females) and handedness (3 left-handed), performed a HLJT and completed a motor imagery questionnaire. Our study shows that neither in the healthy controls nor in patients, a correlation is found between the HLJT and the motor imagery questionnaire. Although the patient group scored significantly lower than the control group on the visual motor imagery component (U = 60; p = 0.010) and the kinesthetic motor imagery component (U = 63.5; p = 0.015) of the questionnaire, there were no significant differences between patients and controls on accuracy scores of the HLJT. Analyses of the reaction time profiles of patients and controls showed that patient were still able to use an implicit motor imagery strategy in the HLJT task. Our results show that after stroke performance on tests that measure two different aspects of motor imagery ability, e.g., implicit and explicit motor imagery, can be differently affected. These results articulate the complex relation phenomenological experience and the different components of motor imagery have and caution the use of one tool as an instrument for use in screening, selecting and monitoring stroke patients in rehabilitation settings.
This paper references
Motor imagery and stroke rehabilitation
T. Mulder (2007)
10.1016/S0166-4328(89)80088-9
The timing of mentally represented actions
J. Decety (1989)
This is an Open Access article distribut...
(2007)
10.1002/1097-0193(200101)12:1<1::AID-HBM10>3.0.CO;2-V
Functional anatomy of execution, mental simulation, observation, and verb generation of actions: A meta‐analysis
J. Grèzes (2001)
Anosognosia and extrapersonal neglect
F. Mattioli (1992)
10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00032-9
Spatial cognition: evidence from visual neglect
P. Halligan (2003)
10.1053/APMR.2001.24286
Potential role of mental practice using motor imagery in neurologic rehabilitation.
P. Jackson (2001)
10.1016/J.APMR.2006.02.034
The effects of mental practice in stroke rehabilitation: a systematic review.
S. Braun (2006)
10.1080/09638280500535025
Motor neglect: Implications for movement and rehabilitation following stroke
T. Punt (2006)
Mini Mental State
H. Vaňková (2010)
Measuring motor
E. van Reenen (2001)
10.5402/2012/613595
Brain Activation in Primary Motor and Somatosensory Cortices during Motor Imagery Correlates with Motor Imagery Ability in Stroke Patients
L. Confalonieri (2012)
The post-stroke hemiplegic patient. 1. a method for evaluation of physical performance.
A. Fugl-Meyer (1975)
Individual differences in spatial
G. Borst (2010)
10.1093/ecam/nem170
The MIQ-RS: A Suitable Option for Examining Movement Imagery Ability
Melanie J. Gregg (2010)
10.1111/j.1467-8578.1974.tb00474.x
Towards integration.
D. Sines (1990)
sensitivity to change of the Utrecht Arm/Hand Test (UAT)
G. Vingerhoets (2002)
10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.08.024
Loss of imagery phenomenology with intact visuo-spatial task performance: A case of ‘blind imagination’
A. Zeman (2010)
10.1016/j.cortex.2007.09.002
Motor imagery: A window into the mechanisms and alterations of the motor system
F. P. Lange (2008)
10.1097/JES.0b013e31820ac5e0
Measuring Motor Imagery Using Psychometric, Behavioral, and Psychophysiological Tools
C. Collet (2011)
10.1162/0898929052880039
Neural Topography and Content of Movement Representations
F. P. Lange (2005)
10.1123/JSEP.34.5.621
Further validation and development of the movement imagery questionnaire.
Sarah E Williams (2012)
10.1093/PTJ/81.11.1780
Implicit learning of a perceptual-motor skill after stroke.
P. Pohl (2001)
10.3389/fnhum.2013.00576
Towards the integration of mental practice in rehabilitation programs. A critical review
F. Malouin (2013)
10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_515
Implicit Sequence Learning
B. Meier (2012)
10.3200/JMBR.40.5.433-445
A Neuroscientific Review of Imagery and Observation Use in Sport
P. Holmes (2008)
10.1007/BF00868403
Facilitatory effect of neglect rehabilitation on the recovery of left hemiplegic stroke patients: A cross-over study
S. Paolucci (2004)
10.1123/JSEP.30.2.200
Movement imagery ability: development and assessment of a revised version of the vividness of movement imagery questionnaire.
R. Roberts (2008)
10.1006/nimg.2002.1290
Motor Imagery in Mental Rotation: An fMRI Study
G. Vingerhoets (2002)
Motor neglect: implications
T. D. 1780–1789. Punt (2006)
A randomized efficacy
J S. (2001)
10.2466/pms.104.3.823-843
Relationship between Visual and Motor Imagery
Laura P. McAvinue (2007)
Post-Stroke Hemiplegic Patient.1. Method for Evaluation of Physical Performance. Scand
A Fuglmeyer (1975)
Measuring motor impairment of the affected arm and hand after stroke: validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of the Utrecht Arm
E Van Reenen (2001)
10.2340/16501977-0020
Motor imagery and stroke rehabilitation: a critical discussion.
S. D. de Vries (2007)
10.1123/JSEP.21.2.95
Efficacy of external and internal visual imagery perspectives for the enhancement of performance on tasks in which form is important.
Lew Hardy (1999)
10.1038/sj.bdj.2014.959
Clinical assessment
S. Challacombe (2014)
A neuroscientific review of imagery
C. Calmels (2008)
10.1016/0166-4328(96)00141-6
Mentally simulated movements in virtual reality: does Fitt's law hold in motor imagery?
J. Decety (1995)
10.1111/J.2044-8295.1992.TB02446.X
Knowledge, knerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure
R. Masters (1992)
10.1037//0096-3445.116.2.172
Imagined spatial transformation of one's body.
L. M. Parsons (1987)
10.1016/0028-3932(71)90067-4
The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory.
R. Oldfield (1971)
10.1097/00001756-199605170-00012
Possible involvement of primary motor cortex in mentally simulated movement: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
M. Roth (1996)
10.1037/0278-7393.25.1.236
Which Attention Is Needed for Implicit Sequence Learning
L. Jiménez (1999)
10.1006/nimg.2001.0832
Neural Simulation of Action: A Unifying Mechanism for Motor Cognition
M. Jeannerod (2001)
10.1080/02640410310001641449
The relationship between the use of kinaesthetic imagery and different visual imagery perspectives
N. Callow (2004)
Mentally simulated movements in virtual
M. Jeannerod (1995)
Measuring motor impairment of the affected arm and hand after stroke : validity , reliability and sensitivity to change of the Utrecht Arm / Hand Test ( UAT )
E. van Reenen (2001)
10.7551/mitpress/7111.003.0023
The visual brain in action
A. Milner (1995)
10.1017/S0140525X00034026
The representing brain: Neural correlates of motor intention and imagery
M. Jeannerod (1994)
The relationship between the use of kinaesthetic
N. Callow (2004)
Contribution from neurophysiological and psy
HBM103.0.CO (2005)
10.1177/154596802401105171
The Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Recovery after Stroke: A Critical Review of Its Measurement Properties
D. Gladstone (2002)
10.1016/S0959-4388(99)00038-0
Mental imaging of motor activity in humans
M. Jeannerod (1999)
10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6
"Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.
M. Folstein (1975)
10.1038/35090055
Neural foundations of imagery
S. Kosslyn (2001)
Motor imagery ability after stroke
S. Belleville (2004)
10.1155/2012/497289
The Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised, Second Edition (MIQ-RS) Is a Reliable and Valid Tool for Evaluating Motor Imagery in Stroke Populations
A. Butler (2012)
10.1159/000065667
Cognitive Functions and Depression as Predictors of Poor Outcome 15 Months after Stroke
T. Pohjasvaara (2002)
Motor imagery ability after stroke
De Vries
10.1080/713755964
Implicit Sequence Learning with Competing Explicit Cues
L. Jiménez (2001)
Motor learning of a dynamic
A. J. Orrell (2006)
10.1037/14178-000
Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development
F. Galton (1883)
10.1177/1545968308315597
Motor Imagery to Enhance Recovery After Subcortical Stroke: Who Might Benefit, Daily Dose, and Potential Effects
Lucy Simmons (2008)
Motor imagery ability in stroke patients: the relationship between implicit and explicit motor imagery
S Citation de Vries (2013)
10.1016/J.BRAINRESREV.2005.09.004
Contribution from neurophysiological and psychological methods to the study of motor imagery
A. Guillot (2005)
10.2307/1772225
Image and Mind
S. Kosslyn (1982)
10.1017/S0140525X00034178
On the relation between motor imagery and visual imagery
R. Klatzky (1994)
Motor imagery: a window
F. P. de Lange (2008)
10.1097/01.NPT.0000260567.24122.64
The Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ) for Assessing Motor Imagery in Persons with Physical Disabilities: A Reliability and Construct Validity Study
F. Malouin (2007)
10.1037/0033-295X.105.3.558
A neuropsychological theory of motor skill learning.
D. Willingham (1998)
10.1093/PTJ/86.3.369
Motor learning of a dynamic balancing task after stroke: implicit implications for stroke rehabilitation.
A. Orrell (2006)
10.1076/CLIN.12.4.482.7241
Comparing an Individual's Test Score Against Norms Derived from Small Samples
J. Crawford (1998)
10.3389/fnhum.2013.00390
The effects of mental practice in neurological rehabilitation; a systematic review and meta-analysis
S. Braun (2013)
10.1016/j.cortex.2009.08.002
Different motor imagery modes following brain damage
E. Daprati (2010)
10.1080/09602019208401406
Anosognosia and extrapersonal neglect as predictors of functional recovery following right hemisphere stroke
B. Gialanella (1992)
10.1161/01.STR.0000226902.43357.fc
Motor Imagery: A Backdoor to the Motor System After Stroke?
Nikhil Sharma (2006)
10.1111/j.2044-8295.2011.02068.x
Re-imagining motor imagery: building bridges between cognitive neuroscience and sport psychology.
A. Moran (2012)
Relationship between visual and
L. P. McAvinue (2007)
10.1016/s0003-9993(03)00771-8
Working memory and mental practice outcomes after stroke.
F. Malouin (2004)
10.1080/10413209708406487
The coleman roberts griffith address: Three myths about applied consultancy work
Lew Hardy (1997)
10.1162/0898929053467587
Evidence for Multiple, Distinct Representations of the Human Body
J. Schwoebel (2005)
10.1177/1545968307313499
Clinical Assessment of Motor Imagery After Stroke
F. Malouin (2008)
10.1080/17470211003802459
Individual Differences in Spatial Mental Imagery
G. Borst (2010)
10.1191/026921501672063235
A randomized efficacy and feasibility study of imagery in acute stroke
S. Page (2001)
10.1093/AGEING/29.3.223
Reliability of measurements of muscle tone and muscle power in stroke patients.
J. Gregson (2000)
10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00005-9
The role of working memory in motor learning and performance
J. P. Maxwell (2003)
Individual Differences in Imaging: Their Measurement, Origins, and Consequences
A. Richardson (1994)
The timing of men
J. Decety (1989)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05946.x
The porous boundaries between explicit and implicit memory: behavioral and neural evidence
Ilana T. Z. Dew (2011)
10.1038/375054A0
Use of implicit motor imagery for visual shape discrimination as revealed by PET
L. Parsons (1995)
10.1080/02701367.2011.10599788
The Functional Equivalence Between Movement Imagery, Observation, and Execution Influences Imagery Ability
Sarah E Williams (2011)



This paper is referenced by
10.3389/fnhum.2015.00573
Editorial: Mental practice: clinical and experimental research in imagery and action observation
M. Ietswaart (2015)
10.15344/2456-8007/2018/126
Effect of Auditory Neurofeedback Training on Upper Extremity Function and Motor Imagery Ability in a Stroke Patient: A Single Case Study
H. Nakano (2018)
10.1109/TNSRE.2018.2878249
A Brain–Computer Interface-Based Action Observation Game That Enhances Mu Suppression
Hyunmi Lim (2018)
10.17691/STM2017.9.3.04
Exoskeleton Control System Based on Motor-Imaginary Brain–Computer Interface
S. Gordleeva (2017)
10.5539/GJHS.V10N11P66
Motor Imagery Training for Gait Rehabilitation of People With Post-Stroke Hemiparesis: Practical Applications and Protocols
Ayelet Dunsky (2018)
10.1038/srep37696
Embodied neurofeedback with an anthropomorphic robotic hand
N. Braun (2016)
10.1038/s41598-020-61937-9
Performing the hand laterality judgement task does not necessarily require motor imagery
Akira Mibu (2020)
10.1080/17461391.2015.1051133
Comparing self-report and mental chronometry measures of motor imagery ability
Sarah E Williams (2015)
10.3934/Neuroscience.2018.4.236
Combined action observation and motor imagery therapy: a novel method for post-stroke motor rehabilitation
J. Emerson (2018)
Simultaneous induction of SSMVEP and SMR Using a Gaiting video stimulus: a novel hybrid brain-computer interface
Xin Zhang (2019)
Neurocognitive aspects and clinical relevance of bodily self-awareness
N. Braun (2017)
Récupération motrice du membre supérieur post-AVC : recherche de mesures adaptées pour l'évaluation et étude de l'efficacité de stratégies thérapeutiques
N. Brihmat (2018)
10.1016/j.psychsport.2020.101673
Generate, maintain, manipulate? Exploring the multidimensional nature of motor imagery
Sarah N Kraeutner (2020)
10.1371/journal.pone.0219754
What is the effect of bodily illusions on corticomotoneuronal excitability? A systematic review
Alex Dilena (2019)
10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00005
Damage to Fronto-Parietal Networks Impairs Motor Imagery Ability after Stroke: A Voxel-Based Lesion Symptom Mapping Study
K. Oostra (2016)
10.1016/j.neulet.2015.08.009
Structured movement representations of a phantom limb associated with phantom limb pain
M. Osumi (2015)
10.1109/SMC.2016.7844470
Analyzing electrode configurations to detect intention of pedaling initiation through EEG signals
M. Rodriguez-Ugarte (2016)
10.1016/j.apmr.2020.09.391
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Mental Practice for the Upper Limb After Stroke: Imagined or Real Benefit?
R. Stockley (2020)
Comparison of Embedded Versus Added Motor Imagery Training for Improving Balance and Gait in Individuals with Stroke
Arulmozhe (2016)
10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2019.02.016
Disruption of motor imagery performance following inhibition of the left inferior parietal lobe
Sarah N Kraeutner (2019)
10.1016/J.RH.2015.08.001
Práctica mental en la rehabilitación de pacientes con ictus. Una revisión sistemática
M. Rivas (2016)
10.1080/08990220.2020.1741344
What are the determinants of explicit and implicit motor imagery ability in stroke patients?: a controlled study
Esma Nur Kolbaşı (2020)
10.1134/S0362119718030088
The Efficiency of the Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on Motor Imagery with Tactile and Visual Feedback
M. Lukoyanov (2018)
10.3389/fnhum.2016.00321
Do Motor Imagery Performances Depend on the Side of the Lesion at the Acute Stage of Stroke?
C. Kemlin (2016)
10.1080/00207454.2019.1567509
Motor imagery in stroke patients: a descriptive review on a multidimensional ability
S. Santoro (2019)
Effects and mechanisms of rhythmic-cued motor imagery on walking, fatigue and quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis
Barbara Seebacher (2018)
10.1155/2017/4653256
Motor Imagery Impairment in Postacute Stroke Patients
N. Braun (2017)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar