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Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Rhizophagus Clarus) And Rhizobacteria (Bacillus Subtilis) Can Improve The Clonal Propagation And Development Of Teak For Commercial Plantings

Flávia Sampaio Alexandre, Larissa Venturini Della Flora, Ivanildo Guilherme Henrique, Daniely Camila da Silva, Andreza Pereira Mercedes, Aline Cardoso Silva, Afonso Silva de Oliveira, Mariane Patrícia Bondespacho da Silva, Bruna Patrícia Formelh Ronning, Douglas Rafael Dreher, Bárbara Gionco Cano, Matheus Felipe de Lima Andreata, Joamir Barbosa Filho, Eva Roseane Santos, Fausto Hissashi Takisawa, Rafael Ferreira Alfenas, Galdino Andrade, Martha Viviana Torres Cely

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The Tectona grandis L.f. (teak) is an important forest species with high economy value in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In Latin America, Brazil is one of the countries with the most cultivated areas. The cultivation of teak turns out to be challenging because of its high nutritional demand and the need for seedling production by clonal propagation that includes about 90 days in the nursery phase. The optimization of seedling production is necessary for better results in the nursery and to enhance growth in the field. In this way, the well-known advantage of using microorganisms that promote plant development appears as a potential biotechnological approach to be explored and for the implantation of new areas of wood production. In this study, the inoculation of Bacillus subtilis as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) was evaluated, and Rhizophagus clarus, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), and the co-inoculation of these microorganisms in the teak seedling production phase can improve the development of commercial plantations under field conditions. Experiments were carried out under greenhouse and field conditions to evaluate four treatments based on the substrate inoculation of the seedlings. Treatments consisted of a non-inoculated control, PGPR inoculation, AMF inoculation, and PGPR + AMF inoculation. The results of the biometric evaluation of seedlings in the greenhouse showed that there was a significant difference in AMF inoculation and PGPR + AMF inoculation in terms of the specific root length and root density treatments, there was also a positive correlation between these two treatments and the absorption of some nutrients, such as P, N, K, Mg, Cu, Mn, and Zn. This response led to an increase between 4.75 and 11.04% in the field growth rate.