Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

The Influence Of Intrinsic Motivation And Synergistic Extrinsic Motivators On Creativity And Innovation

Carmen Fischer, Charlotte P. Malycha, Ernestine Schafmann
Published 2019 · Psychology, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Despite the vast amount of research focusing on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the effects of extrinsic motivators on creativity and innovation have been scarcely investigated. Extrinsic factors can be seen as synergistic extrinsic motivators when they have a positive effect on the outcome. The present study investigates synergistic extrinsic motivators that organizations can use to foster creativity and innovation of their intrinsically motivated knowledge workers. The analysis is based on Amabile and Pratt’s dynamic componential model of creativity and innovation in organizations combined with elements from Ryan and Deci’s self-determination theory. The quantitative data stemmed from 90 knowledge workers of an international consulting company who participated in an online self-assessment. In exploratory factor analyses, extrinsic motivation items consolidated two factors “relational rewards” and “transactional rewards”, while creativity and innovation items resulted in a one-factor solution, called “creativity/innovation performance”. The results of hierarchical regression analyses confirmed the widely found positive effects of intrinsic motivation on creative and innovative performance. Moreover, the results supported the hypothesis that the extrinsic motivator, relational rewards, moderated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and creativity/innovation performance significantly and positively. The findings showed the higher the perceived probability of receiving relational rewards and the higher the intrinsic motivation, the greater the positive effect on creative/innovative outcomes. At the same time, the results did not confirm the hypothesis, that the moderator transactional rewards had a statistically significant effect on the relationship between intrinsic motivation and creative/innovative performance. Finally, the empirical evidence provided practical implications on how to stimulate the creativity/innovation performance of knowledge workers within organizations.
This paper references
A MODEL OF CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS
Rama (2011)
10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00256
Impact of the Supervisor Feedback Environment on Creative Performance: A Moderated Mediation Model
Jian Zhang (2017)
10.1016/J.RESPOL.2014.01.010
Do Innovation Measures Actually Measure Innovation? Obliteration, Symbolic Adoption, and Other Finicky Challenges in Tracking Innovation Diffusion
Andrew J. Nelson (2014)
10.1037/h0054346
A Theory of Human Motivation
A. Maslow (2013)
10.1016/J.LEAQUA.2003.12.003
Leader Behaviors and the Work Environment for Creativity: Perceived Leader Support
T. Amabile (2004)
Oxford Library of Psychology: The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, (Motivation), and Self-Determination Theory
M. Gagné (2014)
Discovering Statistics Using SPSS
A. P. Field (2000)
10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01398
Using a Feedback Environment to Improve Creative Performance: A Dynamic Affect Perspective
Zhenxing Gong (2017)
10.5465/AMJ.2009.0470
Putting Creativity to Work: The Implementation of Creative Ideas in Organizations
M. Baer (2012)
Successful DNA Decoded: The Top Skills Needed by Consultants
S. Schlossbauer (2017)
There's no place like home.
T. Hudson (1996)
10.1037/0003-066X.40.7.812
How motives, skills, and values determine what people do.
D. Mcclelland (1985)
10.1207/S15326934CRJ1602
Individual and Contextual Predictors of Creative Performance: The Mediating Role of Psychological Processes
J. Choi (2004)
Psychologie, 20th Edn
R. J. Gerrig (2016)
10.1037/0022-3514.68.4.580
"The Work Preference Inventory: Assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations": Correction.
T. Amabile (1995)
Contextual inhibitors
T. A. Anderson (2009)
10.1093/OXFORDHB/9780199794911.013.003
The importance of universal psychological needs for understanding motivation in the workplace
E. Deci (2014)
10.2307/2520748
Work and the nature of man
F. Herzberg (1966)
10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0
On the Use, the Misuse, and the Very Limited Usefulness of Cronbach’s Alpha
K. Sijtsma (2009)
10.1300/J287V02N02_11
A Critical Analysis
J. Conte (1986)
10.1146/ANNUREV-ORGPSYCH-032516-113108
Self-Determination Theory in Work Organizations: The State of a Science
E. Deci (2017)
10.1111/ajsp.12211
“Paying it forward” via satisfying a basic human need: The need for relatedness satisfaction mediates gratitude and prosocial behavior
Yuma Shiraki (2018)
Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature, Antecedents, and Consequences. Foundations for Organizational Science
D W Organ (2006)
10.1037/a0027652
Rewards and creative performance: a meta-analytic test of theoretically derived hypotheses.
Kris Byron (2012)
Relational Rewards: Creating a Fulfilling Workplace Environment
P. Joshi (2016)
Armstrong's Handbook of Reward Management Practice: Improving Performance Through Reward
M. Armstrong (2010)
Using Multivariate Statistics. Always Learning, 6th Edn
B G Tabachnick (2014)
10.1080/01443410.2013.814196
Metacognitive and motivational predictors of surface approach to studying and academic examination performance
M. Spada (2014)
10.4236/JSSM.2010.32024
Modeling Customer Reactions to Congestion in Competitive Service Facilities
M. Saidi-Mehrabad (2010)
Rewarding creativity: when
M. Baer (2003)
10.4236/JSSM.2010.32025
Employee’s Personality Traits, Work Motivation and Innovative Behavior in Marine Tourism Industry
S. Chen (2010)
Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics, 5th edition
A. P. Field (2017)
10.1111/1467-8721.EP10768783
Statistical Power Analysis
J. Cohen (1992)
10.1037/A0012757
The Study of Compensation Systems Through the Lens of Self-Determination Theory: Reconciling 35 Years of Debate
Jacques Forest (2008)
10.1007/BF02288892
A basis for analyzing test-retest reliability
L. Guttman (1945)
10.5539/IJBM.V13N1P22
Characteristics and Skills Necessary in Accountancy
S. O'shea (2017)
Business Research Methods, 4th Edn
A. Bryman (2015)
10.1037/1082-989X.4.3.272
Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research.
L. Fabrigar (1999)
10.1037/a0035661
Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: a 40-year meta-analysis.
C. P. Cerasoli (2014)
10.5465/3069372
Differential Effects of Incentive Motivators on Work Performance
Alexander D. Stajkovic (2018)
10.4135/9781473914964.n9
Innovation and Creativity in Organizations
N. Anderson (2014)
10.1093/ACPROF:OSO/9780195315493.003.0002
Statistical Power Analysis
Patrick Dattalo (2008)
10.4324/9780203809501
Work motivation : past, present, and future
R. Kanfer (2008)
10.1016/J.OBHDP.2008.04.001
Understanding the relationship between mood and creativity: A meta-analysis
M. Davis (2009)
10.1016/1053-4822(93)90012-S
Motivational synergy: Toward new conceptualizations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the workplace
T. Amabile (1993)
10.1037//0022-3514.68.4.580
The Work Preference Inventory: assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations.
T. M. Amabile (1994)
10.1080/10400419.2013.752235
Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity Related to Product: A Meta-analysis of the Studies Published Between 1990–2010
Saul Neves de Jesus (2013)
10.1037/a0029359
Creative self-efficacy and individual creativity in team contexts: cross-level interactions with team informational resources.
A. Richter (2012)
10.1080/10641734.2010.10505277
Evaluating the Work Preference Inventory and its Measurement of Motivation in Creative Advertising Professionals
Mark W. Stuhlfaut (2010)
10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627
A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.
E. Deci (1999)
10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00163
Challenges in determining whether creativity and mental illness are associated
J. E. Fisher (2015)
Handbook of Organizational Creativity
Mark D. Agars (2012)
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations
M. Rose (2014)
10.1111/cts.12132
Shortening the Work Preference Inventory for Use with Physician Scientists: WPI‐10
G. F. Robinson (2014)
10.5465/3069349
Individual Creativity and Group Ability to Utilize Individual Creative Resources: A Multilevel Model
S. Taggar (2002)
The dynamic componential
T. M. Amabile (2016)
Multivariate Analysemethoden: Eine Anwendungsorientierte Einführung, 14th Edn
K Backhaus (2016)
10.1017/9781108608954.002
An introduction to motivation
J. Atkinson (1964)
Business Research Methods
Emma Bell (2004)
10.5465/3069410
When Job Dissatisfaction Leads to Creativity: Encouraging the Expression of Voice
J. Zhou (2001)
10.5465/AMJ.2009.37308035
A CROSS-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE ON EMPLOYEE CREATIVITY: GOAL ORIENTATION, TEAM LEARNING BEHAVIOR, AND INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY
G. Hirst (2009)
10.1002/JOB.1943
Rewards and employee creative performance: Moderating effects of creative self‐efficacy, reward importance, and locus of control
M. A. R. Malik (2015)
Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic-dialectical perspective.
R. Ryan (2002)
10.1016/S1048-9843(03)00052-3
Rewarding creativity: when does it really matter?
M. Baer (2003)
Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs inMotivation, Development, andWellness
R. M. Ryan (2017)
Employee’s personality traits
Psychol. Bull (2010)
10.1111/J.1937-8327.2003.TB00287.X
The Effects of Incentives on Workplace Performance: A Meta‐analytic Review of Research Studies 1
Steven J. Condly (2008)
10.5860/choice.31-1802
Handbook Of Psychological Testing
David Eichelberger (2016)
10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.
P. M. Podsakoff (2003)
10.1111/J.1476-8691.2005.00333.X
On-the-Job Innovation: The Impact of Job Design and Human Resource Management Through Production Ownership
Luc W. Dorenbosch (2005)
10.2307/256657
Employee Creativity: Personal and Contextual Factors at Work
G. R. Oldham (1996)
10.1080/10400410701841955
Creativity and Certain Personality Traits: Understanding the Mediating Effect of Intrinsic Motivation
V. Prabhu (2008)
Overview of self-determination
R. M. ceps.1999.1020 Ryan (2002)
Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A'S, Praise, and Other Bribes
Alfie Kohn (1999)
10.1016/B978-0-12-374714-3.00005-7
Chapter 5 – Creativity in Organizations: Facilitators and Inhibitors
E. Alencar (2012)
10.1037/a0020173
The influence of creative process engagement on employee creative performance and overall job performance: a curvilinear assessment.
X. Zhang (2010)
10.1006/CEPS.1999.1020
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions.
Ryan (2000)
10.1016/J.OBHDP.2016.08.001
Motivational mechanisms of employee creativity: A meta-analytic examination and theoretical extension of the creativity literature
Dong Liu (2016)
10.5465/AMJ.2010.49388995
Innovative Behavior in the Workplace: The Role of Performance and Image Outcome Expectations
Feirong Yuan (2010)
10.1177/0149206312441835
A Critical Analysis of the Workplace Creativity Criterion Space
Tamara Montag (2012)
10.1016/J.RIOB.2016.10.001
The Dynamic Componential Model of Creativity and Innovation in Organizations: Making Progress, Making Meaning
T. Amabile (2016)
Motivational synergy: toward new conceptualizations
Cummings Greenwich (1993)
10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00594.x
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the competitive context: an examination of person-situation interactions.
Sami Abuhamdeh (2009)
10.5465/AMJ.2011.59215085
The Necessity of Others is The Mother of Invention: Intrinsic and Prosocial Motivations, Perspective Taking, and Creativity
A. Grant (2011)
10.1037/A0018556
Predictors of individual-level innovation at work: A meta-analysis.
M. Hammond (2011)
10.5465/3069309
There's No Place like Home? The Contributions of Work and Nonwork Creativity Support to Employees' Creative Performance
Nora Madjar (2002)
Innovation and Creativity
H. Kobayashi (2012)
Creativity and certain personality
V. 5.879 Prabhu (2008)
10.1080/10400419.2003.9651404
Rewards, Intrinsic Motivation, and Creativity: A Case Study of Conceptual and Methodological Isolation
R. Eisenberger (2003)
Using Multivariate Statistics
D. Adler (2016)
10.1177/1059601108329811
Contextual Inhibitors of Employee Creativity in Organizations
Jin Nam Choi (2009)
10.5465/AMJ.2007.25525934
Dual Tuning in a Supportive Context: Joint Contributions of Positive Mood, Negative Mood, and Supervisory Behaviors to Employee Creativity
J. George (2007)
Intrinsic and extrinsic
S. Abuhamdeh (2009)
10.1037/0003-066X.51.11.1153
Detrimental effects of reward. Reality or myth?
R. Eisenberger (1996)
10.4324/9781315299556-14
Reward management
Suzanne Richbell



This paper is referenced by
10.1080/14778238.2020.1780966
A framework for integrating knowledge management benefits in the UAE organisations
F. Jabeen (2020)
10.3389/fnmol.2019.00308
Analysis of Schwann Cell Migration and Axon Regeneration Following Nerve Injury in the Sciatic Nerve Bridge
Bing Chen (2019)
10.1080/14330237.2020.1716548
Psychosocial factors impacting the college adjustment of undergraduate students: A scoping review
Thelma Fennie (2020)
10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00974
Creativity-Contingent Rewards, Intrinsic Motivation, and Creativity: The Importance of Fair Reward Evaluation Procedures
E. Saether (2020)
10.1109/CogInfoCom50765.2020.9237834
A complex framework for spontaneous creativity
Nelson Mauro Maldonato (2020)
10.18267/j.cebr.224
Influence of Knowledge Workers Work Motivation on Their Job Performance – Results of Empirical Research
A. Bieńkowska (2020)
10.33102/jqss.vol4no1.57
Peranan Pentadbir sebagai Pencetus Penghasilan Inovasi dalam Kalangan Guru Inovatif Pendidikan Islam: The Role of Administrators as Innovation Initiators among Innovative Islamic Education Teachers
Wan Ali Akbar bin Wan Abdullah (2020)
10.1186/s13731-020-00120-w
Leader strategies for motivating innovation in individuals: a systematic review
E. Soleas (2020)
Faculty of Business Economics Master of Management
Shauna Soons (2017)
10.1016/j.jhtm.2019.10.006
Market orientation and hotel performance: The mediating effect of creative marketing programs
D. Dąbrowski (2019)
10.21512/bbr.v11i2.6178
The Effect of Human Capital on Batik SMEs Innovation: The Mediating Role of Adaptive Creativity
Rini Handayani (2020)
10.5195/EMAJ.2020.193
Funding Entrepreneurship and Innovation with Debt Capital: The Relevance of Capital Structure
G. Obeng (2020)
10.22161/ijels.53.31
The Influence of Differentiated Instruction on Lebanese Students’ Motivation, Knowledge, and Engagement
Madoline Massaad (2020)
10.1109/CogInfoCom47531.2019.9089955
The spontaneous order of creativity Brain, complexity and evolution
N. Maldonato (2019)
10.1177/1932202X20904772
Expectancies, Values, and Costs of Innovating Identified by Canadian Innovators: A Motivational Basis for Supporting Innovation Talent Development
E. Soleas (2020)
10.1108/ijem-09-2019-0352
Creativity potential management in a higher education context
Zhanat Burayeva (2020)
10.1108/jabes-10-2018-0070
Transformational leadership, customer citizenship behavior, employee intrinsic motivation, and employee creativity
Le Minh-Duc (2019)
What Factors and Experiences Motivate Innovators? An Expectancy-Value-Cost Approach to Promoting Student Innovation
Eleftherios Soleas (2020)
10.1177/0258042X20922073
Towards Agile Public Sector: Analysing the Effects of IM and EM on WP
Manoj M. (2020)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar