Chitosan-Based Nanocarriers For Nose To Brain Delivery
In the treatment of brain diseases, most potent drugs that have been developed exhibit poor therapeutic outcomes resulting from the inability of a therapeutic amount of the drug to reach the brain. These drugs do not exhibit targeted drug delivery mechanisms, resulting in a high concentration of the drugs in vital organs leading to drug toxicity. Chitosan (CS) is a natural-based polymer. It has unique properties such as good biodegradability, biocompatibility, mucoadhesive properties, and it has been approved for biomedical applications. It has been used to develop nanocarriers for brain targeting via intranasal administration. Nanocarriers such as nanoparticles, in situ gels, nanoemulsions, and liposomes have been developed. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that these nanocarriers exhibited enhanced drug uptake to the brain with reduced side effects resulting from the prolonged contact time of the nanocarriers with the nasal mucosa, the surface charge of the nanocarriers, the nano size of the nanocarriers, and their capability to stretch the tight junctions within the nasal mucosa. The aforementioned unique properties make chitosan a potential material for the development of nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery to the brain. This review will focus on chitosan-based carriers for brain targeting.