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Synovial Joints. Tribology, Regeneration, Regenerative Rehabilitation And Arthroplasty

Valentin L. Popov, Aleksandr M. Poliakov, Vladimir I. Pakhaliuk

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Synovial joints are unique biological tribosystems that allow a person to perform a wide range of movements with minimal energy consumption. In recent years, they have been increasingly called “smart friction units” due to their ability to self-repair and adapt to changing operating conditions. However, in reality, the elements of the internal structure of the joints under the influence of many factors can degrade rather quickly, leading to serious disease such as osteoarthritis. According to the World Health Organization, osteoarthritis is already one of the 10 most disabling diseases in developed countries. In this regard, at present, fundamental research on synovial joints remains highly relevant. Despite the fact that the synovial joints have already been studied fully, many issues related to their operating, prevention, development of pathology, diagnosis and treatment require more detailed consideration. In this article, we discuss the urgent problems that need to be solved for the development of new pharmacological agents, biomaterials, scaffolds, implants and rehabilitation devices for the prevention, rehabilitation and improvement of the treatment effectiveness of synovial joints at various stages of osteoarthritis.