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Generation Of Reactive Oxygen Species By Mitochondria

Pablo Hernansanz-Agustín, José Antonio Enríquez

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are series of chemical products originated from one or several electron reductions of oxygen. ROS are involved in physiology and disease and can also be both cause and consequence of many biological scenarios. Mitochondria are the main source of ROS in the cell and, particularly, the enzymes in the electron transport chain are the major contributors to this phenomenon. Here, we comprehensively review the modes by which ROS are produced by mitochondria at a molecular level of detail, discuss recent advances in the field involving signalling and disease, and the involvement of supercomplexes in these mechanisms. Given the importance of mitochondrial ROS, we also provide a schematic guide aimed to help in deciphering the mechanisms involved in their production in a variety of physiological and pathological settings.