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Nanoantioxidants: Recent Trends In Antioxidant Delivery Applications

Ibrahim Khalil, Wageeh A. Yehye, Alaitz Etxabide Etxeberria, Abeer A. Alhadi, Seyedehsara Masoomi Dezfooli, Nurhidayatullaili Binti Muhd Julkapli, Wan Jefrey Basirun, Ali Seyfoddin

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Antioxidants interact with free radicals, terminating the adverse chain reactions and converting them to harmless products. Antioxidants thus minimize the oxidative stress and play a crucial role in the treatment of free radicals-induced diseases. However, the effectiveness of natural and/or synthetic antioxidants is limited due to their poor absorption, difficulties to cross the cell membranes, and degradation during delivery, hence contributing to their limited bioavailability. To address these issues, antioxidants covalently linked with nanoparticles, entrapped in nanogel, hollow particles, or encapsulated into nanoparticles of diverse origin have been used to provide better stability, gradual and sustained release, biocompatibility, and targeted delivery of the antioxidants with superior antioxidant profiles. This review aims to critically evaluate the recent scientific evaluations of nanoparticles as the antioxidant delivery vehicles, as well as their contribution in efficient and enhanced antioxidant activities.