Dietary Antioxidants And The Mitochondrial Quality Control: Their Potential Roles In Parkinson’s Disease Treatment
Advances in medicine and dietary standards over recent decades have remarkably increased human life expectancy. Unfortunately, the chance of developing age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), increases with increased life expectancy. High metabolic demands of neurons are met by mitochondria, damage of which is thought to contribute to the development of many NDDs including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mitochondrial damage is closely associated with the abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are widely known to be toxic in various cellular environments, including NDD contexts. Thus, ways to prevent or slow mitochondrial dysfunction are needed for the treatment of these NDDs. In this review, we first detail how ROS are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and review the cellular mechanisms, such as the mitochondrial quality control (MQC) system, by which neurons defend against both abnormal production of ROS and the subsequent accumulation of damaged mitochondria. We next highlight previous studies that link mitochondrial dysfunction with PD and how dietary antioxidants might provide reinforcement of the MQC system. Finally, we discuss how aging plays a role in mitochondrial dysfunction and PD before considering how healthy aging through proper diet and exercise may be salutary.