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Nanopharmaceuticals For Eye Administration: Sterilization, Depyrogenation And Clinical Applications

Aleksandra Zielińska, Beatriz B. Soles, Ana R. Lopes, Beatriz F. Vaz, Camila M. Rodrigues, Thais F. R. Alves, Dorota Klensporf-Pawlik, Alessandra Durazzo, Massimo Lucarini, Patricia Severino, Antonello Santini, Marco V. Chaud, Eliana B. Souto

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As an immune-privileged target organ, the eyes have important superficial and internal barriers, protecting them from physical and chemical damage from exogenous and/or endogenous origins that would cause injury to visual acuity or even vision loss. These anatomic, physiological and histologic barriers are thus a challenge for drug access and entry into the eye. Novel therapeutic concepts are highly desirable for eye treatment. The design of an efficient ocular drug delivery system still remains a challenge. Although nanotechnology may offer the ability to detect and treat eye diseases, successful treatment approaches are still in demand. The growing interest in nanopharmaceuticals offers the opportunity to improve ophthalmic treatments. Besides their size, which needs to be critically monitored, nanopharmaceuticals for ophthalmic applications have to be produced under sterilized conditions. In this work, we have revised the different sterilization and depyrogenation methods for ophthalmic nanopharmaceuticals with their merits and drawbacks. The paper also describes clinical sterilization of drugs and the outcomes of inappropriate practices, while recent applications of nanopharmaceuticals for ocular drug delivery are also addressed.