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Anti-Migratory And Pro-Apoptotic Properties Of Parvifloron D On Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

Nuno Saraiva, João G. Costa, Catarina Reis, Nuno Almeida, Patrícia Rijo, Ana Sofia Fernandes

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Medicinal plants are important sources of new bioactive compounds with potential anticancer activity. Parvifloron D (ParvD) is an abietane diterpenoid, isolated in high amounts from Plectranthus ecklonii Benth. Previous reports have suggested potential therapeutic properties for ParvD. ParvD has shown pro-apoptotic and cytotoxic effects in leukemia and melanoma cell lines. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) models. TNBC is a breast cancer subtype characterized by an aggressive behavior with poor clinical outcomes and weak overall therapeutic responses to the current treatment options. This work aimed at evaluating the anticancer effect of ParvD in MDA-MB-231 cells, a model of human TNBC. To obtain sufficient amounts of purified ParvD the efficiency of several extraction methods was compared. ParvD (0.1–10 µM) decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with ParvD (5 µM) significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic nuclei and exposure to 3 µM ParvD increased the sub-G1 population. Since altered cell adherence, migration, and invasion are determinant processes for the formation of metastases, the effect of ParvD on these cellular processes was tested. Although treatment with ParvD (1 µM) had no effect on cell-substrate attachment, ParvD (1 µM) significantly reduced cell chemotaxis and invasion. This is the first report describing the proapoptotic effect of ParvD in TNBC cells. Moreover, for the first time we have shown that ParvD reduces cell motility, unraveling potential anti-metastatic properties.