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Different Roles Of Mitochondria In Cell Death And Inflammation: Focusing On Mitochondrial Quality Control In Ischemic Stroke And Reperfusion

Marianna Carinci, Bianca Vezzani, Simone Patergnani, Peter Ludewig, Katrin Lessmann, Tim Magnus, Ilaria Casetta, Maura Pugliatti, Paolo Pinton, Carlotta Giorgi

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Mitochondrial dysfunctions are among the main hallmarks of several brain diseases, including ischemic stroke. An insufficient supply of oxygen and glucose in brain cells, primarily neurons, triggers a cascade of events in which mitochondria are the leading characters. Mitochondrial calcium overload, reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, and damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) release place mitochondria in the center of an intricate series of chance interactions. Depending on the degree to which mitochondria are affected, they promote different pathways, ranging from inflammatory response pathways to cell death pathways. In this review, we will explore the principal mitochondrial molecular mechanisms compromised during ischemic and reperfusion injury, and we will delineate potential neuroprotective strategies targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial homeostasis.