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Immunometabolism Modulation In Therapy

Ezequiel Monferrer, Sabina Sanegre, Isaac Vieco-Martí, Amparo López-Carrasco, Fernando Fariñas, Antonio Villatoro, Sergio Abanades, Santos Mañes, Luis de la Cruz-Merino, Rosa Noguera, Tomás Álvaro Naranjo

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The study of cancer biology should be based around a comprehensive vision of the entire tumor ecosystem, considering the functional, bioenergetic and metabolic state of tumor cells and those of their microenvironment, and placing particular importance on immune system cells. Enhanced understanding of the molecular bases that give rise to alterations of pathways related to tumor development can open up new therapeutic intervention opportunities, such as metabolic regulation applied to immunotherapy. This review outlines the role of various oncometabolites and immunometabolites, such as TCA intermediates, in shaping pro/anti-inflammatory activity of immune cells such as MDSCs, T lymphocytes, TAMs and DCs in cancer. We also discuss the extraordinary plasticity of the immune response and its implication in immunotherapy efficacy, and highlight different therapeutic intervention possibilities based on controlling the balanced systems of specific metabolites with antagonistic functions.