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Plant Part-Derived Carbon Dots For Biosensing

Muhammad Zulfajri, Hani Nasser Abdelhamid, Sri Sudewi, Sandhiya Dayalan, Akhtar Rasool, Ahsan Habib, Genin Gary Huang

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Carbon dots (CDs) are a new cluster of carbon atoms with particle size less than 10 nm. CDs also exhibit interesting fluorescence (FL) properties. CDs are attractive because of their fascinating characteristics including low toxicity, good water solubility, and tremendous biocompatibility. Recently, CDs have been investigated as biosensors for numerous target analytes. Meanwhile, the utilization of cheap and renewable natural resources not only fulfills the pressing requirement for the large-scale synthesis of CDs but also encourages the establishment of sustainable applications. The preparation of CDs using natural resources, i.e., plants, offers several advantages as it is inexpensive, eco-friendly, and highly available in the surroundings. Plant parts are readily available natural resources as the starting materials to produce CDs with different characteristics and attractive applications. Several review articles are now available covering the synthesis, properties, and applications of CDs. However, there is no specific and focused review literature discussing plant part-derived CDs for biosensing applications. To handle this gap, we provide a review of the progress of CDs derived from various plant parts with their synthesis methods, optical properties, and biosensing applications in the last five years. We highlight the synthesis methods and then give an overview of their optical properties and applications as biosensors for various biomolecules and molecules in biological samples. Finally, we discuss some future perspectives for plant part-derived CDs for better material development and applications.