Procedural Requirements And Recommendations For Multiplex Immunofluorescence Tyramide Signal Amplification Assays To Support Translational Oncology Studies
In the development of a multiplex immunofluorescence (IF) platform and the optimization and validation of new multiplex IF panels using a tyramide signal amplification system, several technical requirements are important for high-quality staining, analysis, and results. The aim of this review is to discuss the basic requirements for performing multiplex IF tyramide signal amplification (TSA) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissues to support translational oncology research. Our laboratory has stained approximately 4000 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples using the multiplex IF TSA system for immune profiling of several labeled biomarkers in a single slide to elucidate cancer biology at a protein level and identify therapeutic targets and biomarkers. By analyzing several proteins in thousands of cells on a single slide, this technique provides a systems-level view of various processes in various tumor tissues. Although this technology shows high flexibility in cancer studies, it presents several challenges when applied to study different histology cancers. Our experience shows that adequate antibody validation, staining optimization, analysis strategies, and data generation are important steps for generating quality results. Tissue management, fixation procedures, storage, and cutting can also affect the results of the assay and must be standardized. Overall, this method is reliable for supporting translational research given a precise, step-by-step approach.