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Multi-Habitat Radiomics Unravels Distinct Phenotypic Subtypes Of Glioblastoma With Clinical And Genomic Significance

Seung Won Choi, Hwan-Ho Cho, Harim Koo, Kyung Rae Cho, Karl-Heinz Nenning, Georg Langs, Julia Furtner, Bernhard Baumann, Adelheid Woehrer, Hee Jin Cho, Jason K. Sa, Doo-Sik Kong, Ho Jun Seol, Jung-Il Lee, Do-Hyun Nam, Hyunjin Park

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We aimed to evaluate the potential of radiomics as an imaging biomarker for glioblastoma (GBM) patients and explore the molecular rationale behind radiomics using a radio-genomics approach. A total of 144 primary GBM patients were included in this study (training cohort). Using multi-parametric MR images, radiomics features were extracted from multi-habitats of the tumor. We applied Cox-LASSO algorithm to build a survival prediction model, which we validated using an independent validation cohort. GBM patients were consensus clustered to reveal inherent phenotypic subtypes. GBM patients were successfully stratified by the radiomics risk score, a weighted sum of radiomics features, corroborating the potential of radiomics as a prognostic biomarker. Using consensus clustering, we identified three distinct subtypes which significantly differed in the prognosis (“heterogenous enhancing”, “rim-enhancing necrotic”, and “cystic” subtypes). Transcriptomic traits enriched in individual subtypes were in accordance with imaging phenotypes summarized by radiomics. For example, rim-enhancing necrotic subtype was well described by radiomics profiling (T2 autocorrelation and flat shape) and highlighted by the inflammatory genomic signatures, which well correlated to its phenotypic peculiarity (necrosis). This study showed that imaging subtypes derived from radiomics successfully recapitulated the genomic underpinnings of GBMs and thereby confirmed the feasibility of radiomics as an imaging biomarker for GBM patients with comprehensible biologic annotation.