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Multi-Omic Approaches To Breast Cancer Metabolic Phenotyping: Applications In Diagnosis, Prognosis, And The Development Of Novel Treatments

Nuria Gómez-Cebrián, Inés Domingo-Ortí, José Luis Poveda, María J. Vicent, Leonor Puchades-Carrasco, Antonio Pineda-Lucena

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Breast cancer (BC) is characterized by high disease heterogeneity and represents the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Complex and subtype-specific gene expression alterations participate in disease development and progression, with BC cells known to rewire their cellular metabolism to survive, proliferate, and invade. Hence, as an emerging cancer hallmark, metabolic reprogramming holds great promise for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Multi-omics approaches (the combined analysis of various types of omics data) offer opportunities to advance our understanding of the molecular changes underlying metabolic rewiring in complex diseases such as BC. Recent studies focusing on the combined analysis of genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and/or metabolomics in different BC subtypes have provided novel insights into the specificities of metabolic rewiring and the vulnerabilities that may guide therapeutic development and improve patient outcomes. This review summarizes the findings of multi-omics studies focused on the characterization of the specific metabolic phenotypes of BC and discusses how they may improve clinical BC diagnosis, subtyping, and treatment.