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Tissue-Specific Metabolic Regulation Of FOXO-Binding Protein: FOXO Does Not Act Alone

Noriko Kodani, Jun Nakae

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The transcription factor forkhead box (FOXO) controls important biological responses, including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, metabolism, and oxidative stress resistance. The transcriptional activity of FOXO is tightly regulated in a variety of cellular processes. FOXO can convert the external stimuli of insulin, growth factors, nutrients, cytokines, and oxidative stress into cell-specific biological responses by regulating the transcriptional activity of target genes. However, how a single transcription factor regulates a large set of target genes in various tissues in response to a variety of external stimuli remains to be clarified. Evidence indicates that FOXO-binding proteins synergistically function to achieve tightly controlled processes. Here, we review the elaborate mechanism of FOXO-binding proteins, focusing on adipogenesis, glucose homeostasis, and other metabolic regulations in order to deepen our understanding and to identify a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders.