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Advances In Photoreactive Tissue Adhesives Derived From Natural Polymers

Amal Narayanan, Ying Xu, Ali Dhinojwala, Abraham Joy

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To stop blood loss and accelerate wound healing, conventional wound closure techniques such as sutures and staples are currently used in the clinic. These tissue-piercing wound closure techniques have several disadvantages such as the potential for causing inflammation, infections, and scar formation. Surgical sealants and tissue adhesives can address some of the disadvantages of current sutures and staples. An ideal tissue adhesive will demonstrate strong interfacial adhesion and cohesive strength to wet tissue surfaces. Most reported studies rely on the liquid-to-solid transition of organic molecules by taking advantage of polymerization and crosslinking reactions for improving the cohesive strength of the adhesives. Crosslinking reactions triggered using light are commonly used for increasing tissue adhesive strength since the reactions can be controlled spatially and temporally, providing the on-demand curing of the adhesives with minimum misplacements. In this review, we describe the recent advances in the field of naturally derived tissue adhesives and sealants in which the adhesive and cohesive strengths are modulated using photochemical reactions.