Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Thyroid Cancer In The Pediatric Population

Vera A Paulson, Erin R Rudzinski, Douglas S. Hawkins
Published 2019 · Biology, Medicine
Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Thyroid cancer is rare in the pediatric population, but thyroid carcinomas occurring in children carry a unique set of clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics. In comparison to adults, children more often present with aggressive, advanced stage disease. This is at least in part due to the underlying biologic and molecular differences between pediatric and adult thyroid cancer. Specifically, papillary thyroid carcinoma (which accounts for approximately 90% of pediatric thyroid cancer) has a high rate of gene fusions which influence the histologic subtypes encountered in pediatric thyroid tumors, are associated with more extensive extrathyroidal disease, and offer unique options for targeted medical therapies. Differences are also seen in pediatric follicular thyroid cancer, although there are few studies of non-papillary pediatric thyroid tumors published in the literature due to their rarity, and in medullary carcinoma, which is most frequently diagnosed in the pediatric population in the setting of prophylactic thyroidectomies for known multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. The overall shift in the spectrum of histotypes and underlying molecular alterations common in pediatric thyroid cancer is important to recognize as it may directly influence diagnostic test selection and therapeutic recommendations.
This paper references
10.1002/cncr.29887
NTRK fusion oncogenes in pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma in northeast United States.
Manju L. Prasad (2016)
10.3892/ol.2018.9856
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusions: Roles in cancer and therapeutic perspectives.
Zhifa Cao (2019)
10.1002/cncy.21933
Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary‐like nuclear features in the pediatric age group
Esther Diana Rossi (2018)
10.1089/thy.1998.8.133
The ret/PTC1 rearrangement is a common feature of Chernobyl-associated papillary thyroid carcinomas from Belarus.
A V Pisarchik (1998)
Distinct pattern of ret oncogene rearrangements in morphological variants of radiation-induced and sporadic thyroid papillary carcinomas in children.
Yuri E Nikiforov (1997)
carcinomas from Belarus
A. V. Pisarchik (1998)
The ret / PTC 1 rearrangement is a common feature of Chernobyl - associated papillary
A. V. Pisarchik
10.14205/2309-3021.2015.03.02.1
Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
Dmytro Starenki (2015)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19990315)80:6<842::AID-IJC7>3.0.CO;2-Z
NTRK1 re-arrangement in papillary thyroid carcinomas of children after the Chernobyl reactor accident.
Claudia Beimfohr (1999)
10.1210/jcem.81.5.8626874
Age-related activation of the tyrosine kinase receptor protooncogenes RET and NTRK1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Italia Bongarzone (1996)
10.1002/cncr.32124
Children and thyroid cancer: Interpreting troubling trends.
Amy Y. Chen (2019)
10.1515/iupac.79.0972
Carcinoma
John H. Duffus (1906)
10.1210/jc.2003-032224
BRAF mutations are not a major event in post-Chernobyl childhood thyroid carcinomas.
Jorge Lima (2004)
10.1089/thy.2018.0064
Response to Lenvatinib in Children with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Priya Mahajan (2018)
10.1007/s00247-017-3780-6
Ultrasound risk stratification for malignancy using the 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Jennifer E. Lim-Dunham (2017)
10.1515/JPEM.2011.209
Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a 9-year-old boy: case report
Yi-Lei Wu (2011)
10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30166-8
Vemurafenib in patients with BRAF(V600E)-positive metastatic or unresectable papillary thyroid cancer refractory to radioactive iodine: a non-randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.
Marcia S. Brose (2016)
10.1002/lary.24668
BRAF V600E does not predict aggressive features of pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Daniel J. Givens (2014)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-2101
Outcomes of Children and Adolescents with Advanced Hereditary Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Treated with Vandetanib
Ira Lignugaris Kraft (2017)
10.2350/15-07-1667-OA.1
Molecular Characterization of Sporadic Pediatric Thyroid Carcinoma with the DNA/RNA ThyroSeq v2 Next-Generation Sequencing Assay
Jennifer Picarsic (2016)
10.1210/jcem.84.11.6129
High prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements in Ukrainian and Belarussian post-Chernobyl thyroid papillary carcinomas: a strong correlation between RET/PTC3 and the solid-follicular variant.
Geraldine A. Thomas (1999)
10.1016/j.jss.2009.03.098
Pediatric thyroid carcinoma: incidence and outcomes in 1753 patients.
Anthony Richard Hogan (2009)
10.1210/jcem.85.3.6472
The ret/PTC mutations are common in sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma of children and young adults.
Cydney L. Fenton (2000)
10.1089/thy.1998.8.1003
Low prevalence of the ret/PTC3r1 rearrangement in a series of papillary thyroid carcinomas presenting in Belarus ten years post-Chernobyl.
A V Pisarchik (1998)
10.1038/nrendo.2011.139
Management of medullary thyroid carcinoma and MEN2 syndromes in childhood
Steven G. Waguespack (2011)
10.1111/his.13285
Paediatric follicular thyroid carcinoma – indolent cancer with low prevalence of RAS mutations and absence of PAX8–PPARG fusion in a Japanese population
Huy Gia Vuong (2017)
10.7863/JUM.2013.32.2.347
Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: sonography and specimen radiography.
Hyun Kyung Jung (2013)
10.3389/fendo.2012.00054
RET/PTC Translocations and Clinico-Pathological Features in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Cristina Romei (2012)
10.1007/s12022-017-9470-y
Frequent BRAFV600E and Absence of TERT Promoter Mutations Characterize Sporadic Pediatric Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas in Japan
Naoki Oishi (2017)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19960215)77:4<750::AID-CNCR22>3.0.CO;2-Z
Physiologic versus neoplastic C-cell hyperplasia of the thyroid: separation of distinct histologic and biologic entities.
Arie Perry (1996)
10.1002/cncy.21199
Cytomorphological and molecular genetic findings in pediatric thyroid fine-needle aspiration.
Sara E Monaco (2012)
10.1001/archpedi.162.6.526
Thyroid nodules and cancer in children and adolescents affected by autoimmune thyroiditis.
Andrea Corrias (2008)
10.1089/thy.2015.0287
Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma of Follicular Cell Origin: Prognostic Significance of Histologic Subtypes.
Sadana Balachandar (2016)
10.1097/01.pas.0000213264.07597.9a
Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland of Childhood and Adolescence: Morphologic Subtypes, Biologic Behavior and Prognosis: A Clinicopathologic Study of 42 Sporadic Cases Treated at a Single Institution During a 30-Year Period
Paola Collini (2006)
10.1016/j.ecl.2017.01.014
Molecular Genetics of Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents.
Andrew J Bauer (2017)
10.1002/cncy.21713
Histologic and clinical follow-up of thyroid fine-needle aspirates in pediatric patients.
Kristen L Partyka (2016)
10.1200/JCO.2010.32.4145
Activity of XL184 (Cabozantinib), an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with medullary thyroid cancer.
Razelle Kurzrock (2011)
10.1089/thy.2016.0339
Single Point Mutations in Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.
Ali S Alzahrani (2017)
10.1056/NEJMoa1406470
Lenvatinib versus placebo in radioiodine-refractory thyroid cancer.
Martin G. Schlumberger (2015)
10.1038/bjc.1998.157
Absence of RAS and p53 mutations in thyroid carcinomas of children after Chernobyl in contrast to adult thyroid tumours.
B. Suchy (1998)
10.3109/15513819009064723
Pediatric thyroid cancer.
A E Sierk (1990)
10.1186/s12885-017-3782-7
Sorafenib treatment for papillary thyroid carcinoma with diffuse lung metastases in a child with autism spectrum disorder: a case report
Yousuke Higuchi (2017)
10.1101/mcs.a002568
Application of genomics to identify therapeutic targets in recurrent pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma
Rebecca Ronsley (2018)
10.5858/arpa.2014-0612-OA
Mutation in BRAF and Other Members of the MAPK Pathway in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in the Pediatric Population.
Ryan J Gertz (2016)
10.1158/2159-8290.cd-nb2018-050
BLU-667 Targets RET-Altered Cancers.
(2018)
10.1186/s13045-018-0622-4
Basket trial of TRK inhibitors demonstrates efficacy in TRK fusion-positive cancers
Yu Li Chen (2018)
10.1002/pbc.27707
AGK-BRAF is associated with distant metastasis and younger age in pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Luiza Sisdelli (2019)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.2008.03376.x
Expression of iodine metabolism genes in human thyroid tissues: evidence for age and BRAFV600E mutation dependency.
Carla Espadinha (2009)
10.1002/cncr.29044
The RET oncogene in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Jason D. Prescott (2015)
Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules in childhood and adolescence.
Robert D. Croom (1987)
10.1634/theoncologist.2016-0279
Pediatric, Adolescent, and Young Adult Thyroid Carcinoma Harbors Frequent and Diverse Targetable Genomic Alterations, Including Kinase Fusions.
Pierre Vanden Borre (2017)
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license
10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.08.005
Pediatric thyroid cancer: An update from the SEER database 2007-2012.
Sarah M Dermody (2016)
10.1530/ERC-15-0381
Are we really at the dawn of understanding sporadic pediatric thyroid carcinoma?
Maria Isabel Cunha Vieira Cordioli (2015)
Activity of Larotrectinib in Patients with Advanced TRK Fusion Thyroid Cancer
M. S. Brose (2018)
10.1007/s00268-009-0364-0
Long-Term Outcome in 215 Children and Adolescents with Papillary Thyroid Cancer Treated During 1940 Through 2008
Ian D. Hay (2009)
10.1515/JPEM.2002.15.6.823
Hot Nodules in Children and Adolescents in Western Poland from 1996 to 2000: Clinical Analysis of 31 Patients
Marek Niedziela (2002)
10.1507/ENDOCRJ.EJ12-0372
Follicular thyroid cancer in children and adolescents: clinicopathologic features, long-term survival, and risk factors for recurrence.
Keisuke Enomoto (2013)
10.5858/arpa.2016-0399-RA
C Cell and Follicular Epithelial Cell Precursor Lesions of the Thyroid.
Theresa Scognamiglio (2017)
10.1159/000490468
IGF-I at Four Months Associates to Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue at 7 Years of Age
Emma Kjellberg (2018)
10.1089/THY.2014.0460
Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
L FrancisGary (2015)
carcinomas presenting in Belarus ten years post - Chernobyl
C. Fenton (1998)
High prevalence of RET rearrangement in thyroid tumors of children from Belarus after the Chernobyl reactor accident.
Sabine Klugbauer (1995)
10.1159/000381185
Pediatric Thyroid Carcinoma in Patients with Graves' Disease: The Role of Ultrasound in Selecting Patients for Definitive Therapy
Kevin J Kovatch (2015)
ffi cacy of Larotrectinib in TRK Fusion - Positive Cancers in Adults and Children
Z. Cao (2018)
Oncogenic rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene in papillary thyroid Genes 2019, 10, 723 16 of 20 carcinomas from children exposed to the Chernobyl nuclear accident
L. Fugazzola (1995)
10.1089/thy.2016.0387
Fusion Oncogenes Are the Main Genetic Events Found in Sporadic Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas from Children.
Maria Isabel C. Vieira Cordioli (2017)
10.1097/00000478-200006000-00011
Inherited medullary microcarcinoma of the thyroid: a study of 11 cases.
Jo Ellen Krueger (2000)
10.4158/EP15905.OR
AUTONOMOUSLY FUNCTIONING THYROID NODULES IN PATIENTS <21 YEARS OF AGE: THE RHODE ISLAND HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE FROM 2003-2013.
Juanita K. Hodax (2016)
10.1089/thy.2015.0401
Mutational Analysis in Pediatric Thyroid Cancer and Correlations with Age, Ethnicity, and Clinical Presentation
Maria Eleni Nikita (2016)
Long-term outcome in 215 children and adolescents with papillary thyroid cancer
I. D. Hay (1940)
10.1210/jc.2017-02698
DICER1 Mutations Are Frequent in Adolescent-Onset Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Jonathan D Wasserman (2018)
10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.050
Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Nishant Agrawal (2014)
10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2018.05.017
Surgical management of follicular thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents: A study of 30 cases.
Claudio Spinelli (2019)
10.1002/pbc.27077
A phase 1 study of cabozantinib in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory solid tumors, including CNS tumors: Trial ADVL1211, a report from the Children's Oncology Group
Meredith K Chuk (2018)
10.1089/thy.2015.0510
Uncommon TERT Promoter Mutations in Pediatric Thyroid Cancer.
Ali Al-Zahrani (2016)
10.1089/thy.1998.8.485
ret rearrangements in Japanese pediatric and adult papillary thyroid cancers.
Toshio Motomura (1998)
Long-term outcome in 215 children and adolescents with papillary thyroid cancer treated during 1940 through
I D Hay (2008)
10.1089/THY.2012.0612
Antithyroid drug treatment for graves' disease in children: a long-term retrospective study at a single institution.
OhyeHidemi (2014)
Prevalence of mutations of ras and p53 in benign and malignant thyroid tumors from children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
Yuri E Nikiforov (1996)
10.1172/JCI69766
Identification of kinase fusion oncogenes in post-Chernobyl radiation-induced thyroid cancers.
Julio C Ricarte-Filho (2013)
10.1007/BF03343644
Ras mutations are uncommon in sporadic thyroid cancer in children and young adults
Cydney L. Fenton (1999)
10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30119-0
Larotrectinib for paediatric solid tumours harbouring NTRK gene fusions: phase 1 results from a multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2 study.
Theodore W. Laetsch (2018)
10.1530/EC-19-0069
Somatic genetic alterations in a large cohort of pediatric thyroid nodules
Barbora Peková (2019)
10.1016/j.amjsurg.2010.03.009
Global variation in the pattern of differentiated thyroid cancer.
Stacey L Woodruff (2010)
10.1001/jamaoto.2019.0898
Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Mortality Trends in the United States, 1973-2013.
Zhen Jason Qian (2019)
10.1159/000490468
Ultrasonography and the American Thyroid Association Ultrasound-Based Risk Stratification Tool: Utility in Pediatric and Adolescent Thyroid Nodules
Ana L Creo (2018)
10.1159/000443143
Co-Existence of Thyroid Nodule and Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents with Hashimoto Thyroiditis: A Single-Center Study
Melikşah Keskin (2016)
10.1002/pbc.24935
BRAF V600E mutational status in pediatric thyroid cancer.
Lauren E. Henke (2014)
10.1002/cncr.32125
Trends in pediatric thyroid cancer incidence in the United States, 1998-2013.
Marie-Odile Bernier (2019)
10.1007/BF02724312
Differentiated thyroid cancer
Ajay Kumar (2003)
10.1002/cncr.27893
RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ chromosomal rearrangements in post-Chernobyl thyroid cancer and their association with iodine-131 radiation dose and other characteristics.
Rebecca J. Leeman-Neill (2013)
Oncogenic rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene in papillary thyroid carcinomas from children exposed to the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
Laura Fugazzola (1995)
10.1016/0046-8177(95)90294-5
Immunostains for collagen type IV discriminate between C-cell hyperplasia and microscopic medullary carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2a.
Michael B. McDermott (1995)
10.1186/s13044-015-0020-8
Iodine intake as a risk factor for thyroid cancer: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies
Michael Zimmermann (2015)
10.1016/j.amjsurg.2012.07.030
Radiation treatment of patients with primary pediatric malignancies: risk of developing thyroid cancer as a secondary malignancy.
Jessica Rose (2012)
10.1038/bjc.1996.405
RET activation in adult and childhood papillary thyroid carcinoma using a reverse transcriptase-n-polymerase chain reaction approach on archival-nested material.
Gregory Howard Williams (1996)
10.1111/cen.13878
Diagnostic accuracy of the McGill thyroid nodule score in paediatric patients
Ana L Creo (2019)
10.1542/peds.2018-3063
Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Gary L. Francis (2018)
10.7863/JUM.2010.29.8.1223
Sonographic findings of the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
Yuhong Zhang (2010)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-911X(200004)34:4<290::AID-MPO18>3.0.CO;2-8
Thyroid carcinoma in a newborn: clinical challenges in managing the first recorded case.
José Estevão-Costa (2000)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0411
Vandetanib for the Treatment of Symptomatic or Progressive Medullary Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Unresectable Locally Advanced or Metastatic Disease: U.S. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval Summary
Katherine C. Thornton (2012)
Pattern of radiation-induced RET and NTRK1 rearrangements in 191 post-chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas: biological, phenotypic, and clinical implications.
Hartmut Manfred Rabes (2000)
10.1002/cam4.698
AGK‐BRAF gene fusion is a recurrent event in sporadic pediatric thyroid carcinoma
Maria Isabel Cunha Vieira Cordioli (2016)
10.1210/jc.2004-0172
Low frequency of BRAFT1796A mutations in childhood thyroid carcinomas.
Atsushi Kumagai (2004)
10.1089/thy.2005.15.320
BRAF mutations are uncommon in papillary thyroid cancer of young patients.
Karen Penko (2005)
10.1002/mpo.1140
Absence of activating mutations in ras and gsp oncogenes in a cohort of nine patients with sporadic pediatric thyroid tumors.
Erwin Pauws (2001)
10.1200/JCO.2018.36.15_SUPPL.102
A phase 1 study of LOXO-292, a potent and highly selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET-altered cancers.
Alexander Drilon (2018)
BRAF(V600E) mutation is highly prevalent in thyroid carcinomas in the young population in Fukushima: A different oncogenic profile from
N Mitsutake (2015)
10.1056/NEJMoa1714448
Efficacy of Larotrectinib in TRK Fusion–Positive Cancers in Adults and Children
Alexander Drilon (2018)
10.1111/1759-7714.12858
Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of thyroid cancer in northwest China: A population‐based retrospective study of 2490 patients
Meiling Huang (2018)
10.1210/jcem.86.7.7678
RET/PTC rearrangements in thyroid nodules: studies in irradiated and not irradiated, malignant and benign thyroid lesions in children and adults.
R. Elisei (2001)
10.1038/srep16976
BRAFV600E mutation is highly prevalent in thyroid carcinomas in the young population in Fukushima: a different oncogenic profile from Chernobyl
Norisato Mitsutake (2015)
10.1089/thy.2012.0468
Response to sorafenib in a pediatric patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma with diffuse nodular pulmonary disease requiring mechanical ventilation.
Pallavi Iyer (2014)
10.1186/1687-9856-2013-1
Effect of patient Age on surgical outcomes for Graves’ disease: a case–control study of 100 consecutive patients at a high volume thyroid surgical center
Christopher K. Breuer (2013)
10.1007/s12022-016-9420-0
Classic Architecture with Multicentricity and Local Recurrence, and Absence of TERT Promoter Mutations are Correlates of BRAFV600E Harboring Pediatric Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas
Semen Onder (2016)
The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology, Thyroid Carcinoma; (Version 1.2019)
R. I. Haddad (2019)
10.1089/THY.2012.0468
Response to sorafenib in a pediatric patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma with diffuse nodular pulmonary disease requiring mechanical ventilation.
IyerPallavi (2014)
10.1038/modpathol.3800252
Mutational activation of BRAF is not a major event in sporadic childhood papillary thyroid carcinoma
Eli M. Rosenbaum (2005)
10.1210/js.2018-00180
Navigating Systemic Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Carcinoma: From Standard of Care to Personalized Therapy and Beyond
Sarika N. Rao (2018)
10.1089/thy.2012.0612
Antithyroid drug treatment for graves' disease in children: a long-term retrospective study at a single institution.
Hidemi Ohye (2014)
10.1089/THY.2015.0287
Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma of Follicular Cell Origin: Prognostic Significance of Histologic Subtypes
BalachandarSadana (2016)
American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer : The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Kaliszewski (2017)
10.1177/1093526616689628
Pathologic Characteristics, Natural History, and Prognostic Implications of BRAFV600E Mutation in Pediatric Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Steven Hardee (2017)
10.3389/fendo.2018.00565
Hashimoto's Disease and Thyroid Cancer in Children: Are They Associated?
Laura Penta (2018)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0071
Vandetanib in Children and Adolescents with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B Associated Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
Elizabeth Fox (2013)
10.1089/thy.2008.0429
The successful use of sorafenib to treat pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Steven G. Waguespack (2009)
10.14310/HORM.2002.1310
Epidemiological characteristics of children with autoimmune thyroid disease
Vasiliki Skarpa (2011)
10.1089/thy.2011.0215
Oncogenic alterations in papillary thyroid cancers of young patients.
Geneviève Sassolas (2012)
10.2350/15-05-1638-OA.1
Integrating Molecular Testing in the Diagnosis and Management of Children with Thyroid Lesions
Leomar Y. Ballester (2016)
10.1002/cncr.28484
ETV6-NTRK3 is a common chromosomal rearrangement in radiation-associated thyroid cancer.
Rebecca J. Leeman-Neill (2014)
10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2015.10.006
Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Focus on the American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guidelines.
Marguerite T. Parisi (2016)
10.1677/ERC-06-0053
Histopathological and molecular studies in patients with goiter and hypercalcitoninemia: reactive or neoplastic C-cell hyperplasia?
Uberta Verga (2007)
10.1200/JCO.2017.73.6785
Dabrafenib and Trametinib Treatment in Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic BRAF V600-Mutant Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.
Vivek Subbiah (2018)
10.1016/j.canlet.2003.12.004
Low prevalence of BRAF mutations in radiation-induced thyroid tumors in contrast to sporadic papillary carcinomas.
Marina N Nikiforova (2004)
10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60421-9
Sorafenib in radioactive iodine-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial
Marcia S. Brose (2014)
Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment. In PDQ Cancer Information Summaries; National Cancer Institute
(2002)
10.1200/jco.2011.35.5040
Vandetanib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a randomized, double-blind phase III trial.
Samuel A. Jr. Wells (2012)
10.1089/thy.2017.0059
Molecular Testing for Oncogenic Gene Alterations in Pediatric Thyroid Lesions.
Sogol Mostoufi-Moab (2018)
10.1001/jama.2017.0693
Temporal Trends in Treatment and Subsequent Neoplasm Risk Among 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer, 1970-2015
Lucie M. Turcotte (2017)
10.1007/s00268-001-0198-x
Metastatic Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: ClinicopathologicalProfile and Outcome in an Iodine Deficient Area
Anjali Mishra (2001)
10.1016/J.EPSC.2015.08.004
Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid in a 12-year old girl
Rodrigo A Mon (2015)
10.1054/bjoc.1999.0921
Gene rearrangement and Chernobyl related thyroid cancers
Massimo Santoro (2000)
10.1210/JC.2016-1779
Features and Outcome of Autonomous Thyroid Nodules in Children: 31 Consecutive Patients Seen at a Single Center.
Samantha Ly (2016)
10.1016/j.crad.2006.11.015
Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: ultrasound features with histopathological correlation.
Jin Young Kwak (2007)
10.1002/cncy.22104
Incidence and malignancy rates of indeterminate pediatric thyroid nodules
Huiying Wang (2019)
10.14310/horm.2002.1758
Differentiated thyroid cancer in childhood: a literature update
Olga Karapanou (2017)
Carcinoma; (Version 1.2019); National Comprehensive Cancer Network
R I Haddad (2019)
10.1200/JCO.2013.49.6596
Remarkable Response to Crizotinib in Woman With Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Rearranged Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.
Yann Godbert (2015)
10.1089/thy.2015.0020
2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.
B Haugen (2016)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar